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Hearing Loss, Stem Cell Therapy, Regeneration Of Hair Cells, Deafness

EMBARGOED

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 21-Feb-2017 12:00 PM EST

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Microbiome, Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, Biochemistry, Bacteriology, Animal Research, mice

From Mice, Clues to Microbiome’s Influence on Metabolic Disease

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The community of microorganisms that resides in the gut, known as the microbiome, has been shown to work in tandem with the genes of a host organism to regulate insulin secretion, a key variable in the onset of the metabolic disease diabetes. That is the primary finding of a study published this week by a team led by University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers.

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Stem Cell, Leukemia, MDs, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, CRISPR, Mount Sinai Health System

Scientists Create Novel Model That Shows Progression From Normal Blood Cells to Leukemia

Mount Sinai researchers have created a novel model that shows the step-by-step progression from normal blood cells to leukemia and its precursor diseases, creating replicas of the stages of the disease to test the efficacy of therapeutic interventions at each stage, according to a study to be published in Cell Stem Cell. This research marked the first time scientists have been able to transplant leukemia from humans to a test tube and then into mice for study, a landmark feat that will allow for valuable research to help find therapies for blood cancer patients in the future.

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Cancer, Breast Cancer, Tumor Microenvironment, Metastatic Breast Cancer, Tyrosine Kinase, DDR2

Looking Beyond Cancer Cells to Understand What Makes Breast Cancer Spread

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A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center identifies a protein in that microenvironment that promotes the spread of breast cancer cells. It’s part of a well-known family of receptors for which promising inhibitors are being developed.

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Size Matters When It Comes to Keeping Blood Sugar Levels in Check

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Keeping blood sugar levels within a safe range is key to managing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a new finding that could lead to fewer complications for diabetes patients, Yale School of Medicine researchers have found that changes in the size of mitochondria in a small subset of brain cells play a crucial role in safely maintaining blood sugar levels.

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Memorial Sloan Kettering, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Basket Studies, precision cancer therapy, Precision Medicine, Cancer Moonshot, Cancer, Oncology, Genome, genome oncology, Tailored Treatment, genome-driven, Clinical Trial, José Baselga, david hyman, data sharing, Sequencing, Molecular oncology

Memorial Sloan Kettering Researchers Publish Roadmap to Precision Oncology

Researchers from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) today published a seminal review of the rapidly evolving field of precision oncology, which allows doctors to recommend therapies based on a genetic understanding of a person’s cancer. Appearing in the special cancer-focused February 9 issue of Cell, the article — “Implementing Genome-Driven Oncology” — presents a critically self-reflective but solutions-focused perspective on this approach to cancer treatment.

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Inflammatory Diseases, Inflammation, Bacteria, Ut Southwestern

UT Southwestern Scientists Identify Mechanisms Behind Harmful Changes in the Gut’s Bacterial Balance During Inflammation

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A study led by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers has uncovered key molecular pathways behind the disruption of the gut’s delicate balance of bacteria during episodes of inflammatory disease.

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Obeisty, Weight Loss, Hormones, Ut Southwestern

Researchers Identify Ion Channel Necessary for Hormone and Anti-Obesity Drug to Suppress Eating

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UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have identified an ion channel required for brain cells to suppress eating behavior in response to the hormone leptin or to the anti-obesity drug lorcaserin.

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Endothelium, White Blood Cells, Immune Response, Inflammation, Infection, Alon

White Blood Cells Get Pushy to Reach Infection

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How do white blood cells - the immune cells that race to the sites of infection and inflammation - actually get to their targets? The research of Prof. Ronen Alon has revealed that the white blood cells actually force their way through the blood vessel walls to reach the infection, creating large holes.

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LSD, Pharmacology, Serotonin receptors, Acid, Psychedelic Drug Effects

This Is LSD Attached to a Brain Cell Serotonin Receptor

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UNC School of Medicine researchers crystalized the structure of LSD attached to a human serotonin receptor of a brain cell, and they may have discovered why an “acid trip” lasts so long.

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Pancreas, Digestive Enzymes, FGF21, Diabetes, Kidney Diseases, Ut Southwestern

UT Southwestern Researchers Identify Novel Mechanism That Protects Pancreas From Digestive Enzymes

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UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have uncovered the mechanism by which the stress hormone FGF21 keeps digestive enzymes from damaging the pancreas.

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Vaccine, Immune System, pathogenic particles, Biophysics, biophysical

Biophysics Plays Key Role in Immune System Signaling and Response

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How big you are may be as important as what you look like, at least to immune system cells watching for dangerous bacteria and viruses.

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Ut Southwestern, Tuberculosis, smurf1, Macrophages, Ubiquitin, ubiquitin ligase, Autophagy

UT Southwestern Scientists Identify Protein Central to Immune Response Against Tuberculosis Bacteria

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UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have identified a protein that is central to the immune system’s ability to recognize and destroy the bacterium responsible for the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic.

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Plus-Sized Fly: A Model to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Human Obesity

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The fly sheds light on how the brain acts to signal 'fullness' and the possibility of conferring resilience against the impact of high-fat diets

Science

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Cancer, Malaria, Chloroquine, clinical trial

New Study Shows Promise for Repurposing Anti-Malarial Drug for Cancer Treatment

A new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers shows that chloroquine – a drug currently used to treat malaria – may be useful in treating patients with metastatic cancers.

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UT Southwestern Researchers Identify Process Cells Use to Destroy Damaged Organelles with Links to Cancer, Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Aging

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Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have uncovered the mechanism that cells use to find and destroy an organelle called mitochondria that, when damaged, may lead to genetic problems, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory disease, and aging.

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Cell Biology, Electron Microscopy, Holiday, endosome

Cool Image: Adding Color to the Gray World of Electron Microscopy

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While it may look like a pine wreath dotted with crimson berries, this holiday-themed image is in fact one of the world’s first color electron micrographs.

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Osteoporosis, Bone Strength, UVA, University Of Virginia, University of Virginia School of Medicine, UVA School of Medicine, Charles Farber, Genetics, Genome, GWAS, genome wide association studies, Treatments, New Treatments, Aging, Gerontology, Falls, Bones

Creative Approach to Exploring Genome IDs Genes Likely Responsible for Bone Strength

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In an important step in the battle against osteoporosis, a serious brittle bone disease that affects millions, researchers have identified more than a dozen genes amid the vast human genome likely responsible for bone density and strength. The crafty approach the researchers used to find these genes – essentially identifying needles in a haystack – could speed the development of new and better treatments for osteoporosis and many other diseases.

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Molecular Biology, Cancer, Hepatology, Liver Cancer, Pathology, Liver Diseases, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Unexpected Activity of Two Enzymes Helps Explain Why Liver Cancer Drugs Fail

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Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that lack of two types of enzymes can lead to liver disease and cancer in mice. In human liver tumors, they found that deficiencies in these two enzymes, Shp2 and Pten, are associated with poor prognosis. The study, published December 13 by Cell Reports, provides a new understanding of liver cancer development, new therapeutic approach and new mouse model for studying the disease.

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Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Health System, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Stem Cell, stem cell memory

Stem Cell Memories May Hold Answer to Their Reproduction, Mount Sinai Study Finds

Blood-forming stem cells are able to count and store memories of the number of times that they divide, findings which could have major implications for disease research, scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have found.







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