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Journal of Experimental Medicine

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Medicine

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Cancer, Leukemia, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, FLT3, RUNX1

Tumor Suppressor Promotes Some Acute Myeloid Leukemias, Study Reveals

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Researchers in Germany have discovered that a tumor suppressor protein thought to prevent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can actually promote a particularly deadly form of the disease. The study, “RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce leukemia,” which will be published online February 17 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that targeting this protein could be an effective treatment for certain AML patients.

Medicine

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myelin diseases, Tuberous sclerosis complex, Autism, Epilepsy, Neurobiology

Researchers Identify New Cause of Brain Defects in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

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Boston Children’s Hospital researchers have uncovered a new molecular pathway that inhibits the myelination of neurons in the brains of patients with the rare genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The study, “Neuronal CTGF/CCN2 negatively regulates myelination in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex,” which will be published online February 9 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests new ways to treat some of the neurological symptoms associated with TSC, including autism and epilepsy.

Medicine

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Jonathan Kipnis, Kipnis, University Of Virginia, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Brain, Neuroimmunology, Immunology, multiple sclerosis, Meningitis, Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI, Migraines, Disease, Neurological Diseases, Spinal Cord Injury, Microbiota, GUT, Microbiome, Missing Link, type 2 innate lymphocytes, Immune System, brain immune system, brain

UVA Discovers Powerful Defenders of the Brain -- with Big Implications for Disease and Injury

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A rare and potent type of immune cell has been discovered around the brain, suggesting the cells may play a critical role in battling Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. By harnessing the cells' power, doctors may be able to develop new treatments for disease, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries – even migraines.

Medicine

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Autoimmunity, IPEX syndrome, Microbiome, Childhood Diseases, Regulatory T Cells, Foxp3

Gut Bacteria May Hold Key to Treating Autoimmune Disease

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Defects in the body’s regulatory T cells cause inflammation and autoimmune disease by altering the type of bacteria living in the gut, researchers from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have discovered. The study, which will be published online December 19 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that replacing the missing gut bacteria, or restoring a key metabolite called inosine, could help treat children with a rare and often fatal autoimmune disease called IPEX syndrome.

Medicine

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Neurofibromatosis 1, NF1, Vision Loss, Sex Differences, Microglia

Female Hormones Increase Risk of Vision Loss in Rare Genetic Disease

Girls with a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the Nf1 gene are much more likely to lose their vision than boys with the same mutations. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis believe estrogen activates immune cells that damage the nerves necessary for sight.

Medicine

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Autoimmune Disease, Infectious Disease, Bone Marrow Transplant

Researchers Discover a New Gatekeeper Role for Thymic Dendritic Cells in Controlling T Cell Release into the Bloodstream

A team of scientists led by Julie Saba, MD, PhD at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland, has unveiled a novel role of thymic dendritic cells, which could result in new strategies to treat conditions such as autoimmune diseases, immune deficiencies, prematurity, infections, cancer, and the loss of immunity after bone marrow transplantation.

Medicine

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Chemotherapy, Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, tumor initiating cells, Stroma

Study shows low-dose chemotherapy regimens could prevent tumor recurrence in types of breast cancer and pancreatic cancer

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Conventional, high-dose chemotherapy treatments can cause the fibroblast cells surrounding tumors to secrete proteins that promote the tumors’ recurrence in more aggressive forms, researchers have discovered. Frequent, low-dose chemotherapy regimens avoid this effect and may therefore be more effective at treating certain types of breast and pancreatic cancer, according to the murine study “Metronomic chemotherapy prevents therapy-induced stromal activation and induction of tumor-initiating cells,” which will be published online November 23 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Medicine

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Colitis, Microbiome, Parasite, Gastroenterolgy, Protozoa

Protozoan Parasite Increases Risk of Colitis, Study Reveals

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Researchers from the University of Toronto have discovered that mice infected with the common gut parasite Tritrichomonas muris are at an increased risk of developing inflammatory colitis. Their findings, which have been published online in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, expand the type of gut-resident microorganism that can affect the health of their host and suggest that related parasites may cause gastrointestinal disease in humans.

Medicine

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Huntington's Disease, biomarkers, Clinical Trials, Huntingtin

Stanford Study Identifies New Biomarkers for Huntington’s Disease

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Researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine have identified several new biological markers to measure the progression of the inherited neurodegenerative disorder Huntington’s disease. Their findings, which will be published online November 7 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, could benefit clinical trials that test new treatments for the disease.

Medicine

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Cardiology, Stroke, Altitude Sickness, Mountain Sickness, Mountaineering, Genetics, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Sports Medicine, Quality Of Life

Andeans with Altitude Sickness Produce Massive Amounts of Red Blood Cells

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To better understand why some people adapt well to life at high altitude while others don’t, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine studied red blood cells derived from representatives of both groups living in the Andes Mountains. The study reveals that high-altitude, low-oxygen dwellers prone to chronic mountain sickness produce massive amounts of red blood cells thanks to overproduction of the enzyme SENP1.

Science

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Circadian Rhythm, Immune System, T Cells, B Cells, noradrenaline, adrenergic nerves

Study Reveals That Adrenergic Nerves Control Immune Cells’ Daily Schedule

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Researchers in Japan have discovered that the adrenergic nervous system controls when white blood cells circulate through the body, boosting the immune response by retaining T and B cells in lymph nodes at the time of day when they are most likely to encounter foreign antigens. The study, “Adrenergic control of the adaptive immune response by diurnal lymphocyte recirculation through lymph nodes,” will be published online October 31 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Medicine

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Microbiome, dysbiosis, Spinal Cord Injury, Probiotics

Study Suggests Gut Bacteria Can Aid Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury

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Researchers from The Ohio State University have discovered that spinal cord injury alters the type of bacteria living in the gut and that these changes can exacerbate the extent of neurological damage and impair recovery of function. The study, “Gut dysbiosis impairs recovery after spinal cord injury,” by Kristina A. Kigerl et al., which will be published online October 17 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that counteracting these changes with probiotics could aid patients’ recovery from spinal cord injuries.

Medicine

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non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, B Cells

Study Identifies New Therapeutic Target in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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Researchers have discovered that an enzyme called uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) protects the ends of B cell chromosomes to facilitate the proliferation of these antibody-producing cells in response to infection. The study “UNG protects B cells from AID-induced telomere loss,” which will be published online October 3 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, also suggests that targeting this enzyme may help treat certain types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Medicine

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Calorie Restriction, low calorie diet, Sirt1, Epigenetics, Mmp 2

Consuming Fewer Calories Reduces the Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, JEM Study Suggests

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Mice placed on a low-calorie diet are less likely to develop abdominal aortic aneurysms, according to a new study in The Journal of Experimental Medicine. The paper, “Calorie restriction protects against experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice,” which will be published online September 26 ahead of issue, suggests new ways to prevent the often fatal condition from occurring in humans.

Medicine

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AIDS, HIV, Genetics, Immunology/Allergies/Asthma, Medicine And Health, Vaccines

Mutational Tug of War Over HIV's Disease-Inducing Potential

A study from Emory AIDS researchers shows how the expected disease severity when someone is newly infected by HIV reflects a balance between the virus' invisibility to the host's immune system and its ability to reproduce.

Medicine

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Influenza, flu, MRSA, Pneumonia, nox2, Oxidative Stress

New Study Explains Why MRSA ‘Superbug’ Kills Influenza Patients

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Researchers have discovered that secondary infection with the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterium (or “superbug”) often kills influenza patients because the flu virus alters the antibacterial response of white blood cells, causing them to damage the patients’ lungs instead of destroying the bacterium. The study, which will be published online August 15 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that inhibiting this response may help treat patients infected with both the flu virus and MRSA.

Medicine

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Leukemia, Lymphoma, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Bone Marrow Cell Therapy, TNF, Graft-versus-host disease, GVHD

Researchers Develop New Strategy to Limit Side Effects of Stem Cell Transplants

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Scientists in Germany have developed a new approach that may prevent leukemia and lymphoma patients from developing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after therapeutic bone marrow transplants. The researchers describe the successful application of their strategy in mice in “Exogenous TNFR2 activation protects from acute GvHD via host T reg cell expansion,” which will be published online August 15 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Medicine

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New Model Recreates Early Spread of Parkinson’s Disease in the Brain

They’re two of the biggest mysteries in Parkinson’s disease research—where does the disease start? And how can it be stopped early in the process?

Medicine

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Autoimmunity, Vaccines, Immune System Decliine, Antibodies, Microrna, microRNA-155, T Follicular Helper Cells, lupus and pregnancy, Rheumatoid Arthritis, T Cell

Found: A Potential New Way to Sway the Immune System

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A new international collaboration involving scientists at The Scripps Research Institute opens a door to influencing the immune system, which would be useful to boost the effectiveness of vaccines or to counter autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Medicine

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coats plus syndrome, rare genetic disorders, Telomeres, Thalidomide, Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Researchers Identify a New Genetic Cause of Coats Plus Syndrome

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A team of Israeli researchers has discovered that mutations in STN1, a gene that helps maintain the ends of chromosomes, cause the rare, inherited disorder Coats plus syndrome. The study, “Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects,” will be published online ahead of issue July 18 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.


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