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Journal of Experimental Medicine

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Medicine

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Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinopathy Of Prematurity, Premature Babies, Diabetes, Angiogenesis, Lucentis, Eylea, Ranibizumab, aflibercept, Drug Discovery

Study Suggests New Way to Prevent Vision Loss in Diabetics and Premature Babies

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Researchers at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, part of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, have identified a new molecule that induces the formation of abnormal blood vessels in the eyes of diabetic mice. The study, “Secretogranin III as a disease-associated ligand for antiangiogenic therapy of diabetic retinopathy,” which will be published March 22 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that inhibiting this molecule may prevent similarly aberrant blood vessels from damaging the vision of not only diabetics, but also premature infants.

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Daniela Cihakova, mice, Heart Failure, Eosinophils, Brain, Inflammation, Myocarditis

Rare Type of Immune Cell Responsible for Progression of Heart Inflammation to Heart Failure in Mice

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A new study in mice reveals that eosinophils, a type of disease-fighting white blood cell, appear to be at least partly responsible for the progression of heart muscle inflammation to heart failure in mice.

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Breast Cancer, Basal Like, triple negative breast cancer, epalrestat, Diabetes

Diabetes Drug May Be Effective Against Deadly Form of Breast Cancer, Study Suggests

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Researchers in China have discovered that a metabolic enzyme called AKR1B1 drives an aggressive type of breast cancer. The study, “AKR1B1 promotes basal-like breast cancer progression by a positive feedback loop that activates the EMT program,” which has been published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that an inhibitor of this enzyme currently used to treat diabetes patients could be an effective therapy for this frequently deadly form of cancer.

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Cancer, Leukemia, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, FLT3, RUNX1

Tumor Suppressor Promotes Some Acute Myeloid Leukemias, Study Reveals

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Researchers in Germany have discovered that a tumor suppressor protein thought to prevent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can actually promote a particularly deadly form of the disease. The study, “RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce leukemia,” which will be published online February 17 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that targeting this protein could be an effective treatment for certain AML patients.

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myelin diseases, Tuberous sclerosis complex, Autism, Epilepsy, Neurobiology

Researchers Identify New Cause of Brain Defects in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

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Boston Children’s Hospital researchers have uncovered a new molecular pathway that inhibits the myelination of neurons in the brains of patients with the rare genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The study, “Neuronal CTGF/CCN2 negatively regulates myelination in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex,” which will be published online February 9 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests new ways to treat some of the neurological symptoms associated with TSC, including autism and epilepsy.

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Jonathan Kipnis, Kipnis, University Of Virginia, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Brain, Neuroimmunology, Immunology, multiple sclerosis, Meningitis, Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI, Migraines, Disease, Neurological Diseases, Spinal Cord Injury, Microbiota, GUT, Microbiome, Missing Link, type 2 innate lymphocytes, Immune System, brain immune system, brain

UVA Discovers Powerful Defenders of the Brain -- with Big Implications for Disease and Injury

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A rare and potent type of immune cell has been discovered around the brain, suggesting the cells may play a critical role in battling Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. By harnessing the cells' power, doctors may be able to develop new treatments for disease, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries – even migraines.

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Autoimmunity, IPEX syndrome, Microbiome, Childhood Diseases, Regulatory T Cells, Foxp3

Gut Bacteria May Hold Key to Treating Autoimmune Disease

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Defects in the body’s regulatory T cells cause inflammation and autoimmune disease by altering the type of bacteria living in the gut, researchers from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have discovered. The study, which will be published online December 19 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that replacing the missing gut bacteria, or restoring a key metabolite called inosine, could help treat children with a rare and often fatal autoimmune disease called IPEX syndrome.

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Neurofibromatosis 1, NF1, Vision Loss, Sex Differences, Microglia

Female Hormones Increase Risk of Vision Loss in Rare Genetic Disease

Girls with a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the Nf1 gene are much more likely to lose their vision than boys with the same mutations. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis believe estrogen activates immune cells that damage the nerves necessary for sight.

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Autoimmune Disease, Infectious Disease, Bone Marrow Transplant

Researchers Discover a New Gatekeeper Role for Thymic Dendritic Cells in Controlling T Cell Release into the Bloodstream

A team of scientists led by Julie Saba, MD, PhD at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland, has unveiled a novel role of thymic dendritic cells, which could result in new strategies to treat conditions such as autoimmune diseases, immune deficiencies, prematurity, infections, cancer, and the loss of immunity after bone marrow transplantation.

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Chemotherapy, Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, tumor initiating cells, Stroma

Study shows low-dose chemotherapy regimens could prevent tumor recurrence in types of breast cancer and pancreatic cancer

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Conventional, high-dose chemotherapy treatments can cause the fibroblast cells surrounding tumors to secrete proteins that promote the tumors’ recurrence in more aggressive forms, researchers have discovered. Frequent, low-dose chemotherapy regimens avoid this effect and may therefore be more effective at treating certain types of breast and pancreatic cancer, according to the murine study “Metronomic chemotherapy prevents therapy-induced stromal activation and induction of tumor-initiating cells,” which will be published online November 23 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.







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