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Science

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Pharmacology, Biochemistry

Study Details Molecular Structure of Major Cell Signaling Pathway

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Scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have reported the exact molecular structure and mechanisms of a major cell signaling pathway that serves a broad range of functions in humans.

Medicine

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SHIP Protein Identified as a B Cell Tumor Suppressor

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Sanford-Burnham researchers discover how the enzyme SHIP regulates B cell growth in mice, findings that could impact lymphoma drugs in development.

Medicine

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Bioelectrical Signals Turn Stem Cells' Progeny Cancerous

A change in membrane voltage in newly identified "instructor cells" can cause stem cells' descendants to trigger melanoma-like growth in distant pigment cells. This metastatic transformation is due to changes in serotonin transport. Discovery of this novel bioelectric signal and cell type may help fight cancer, vitiligo and birth defects.

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New Clues to How Cancer-Related Proteins Plasmin, Thrombin Lose Inhibition

A new technique that searches blood for the tiniest remnants of broken down proteins has revealed new information about how cells crank up cancer activators called proteases. The results improve researchers' understanding of the mechanics of breast cancer and point to where to look for possible indicators of early disease. Appearing this week in PLoS ONE, the research shows previously unknown contributing factors to protease activation, which helps spread cancer.

Science

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cars, Cell Biology, Raman, Spectroscopy, Chemical Microscopy

Faster CARS, Less Damage: NIST Chemical Microscopy Shows Potential for Cell Diagnostics

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A paper by NIST researchers may breathe new life into the use of a powerful--but tricky--diagnostic technique for cell biology.

Science

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Takahashi, Circadian Rhythm, Temperature, Body Temperature

Temperature Rhythms Keep Body Clocks in Sync

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that fluctuations in internal body temperature regulate the body’s circadian rhythm, the 24-hour cycle that controls metabolism, sleep and other bodily functions.

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Whale, Whales, Ocean Conservation, Nitrogen Cycle, Feces, PLoS ONE, Marine Biology, Nutrient

Whale Poop Pumps Up Ocean Health

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Whale feces float--and strongly enhance productivity of fisheries, scientists at the University of Vermont and Harvard have found, reversing the assumption that whales accelerate loss of nutrients to the bottom. This nitrogen input in the Gulf of Maine is more than the input of all rivers combined, 23,000 metric tons annually.

Science

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Cells, molecular interaction, Macromolecule, Simulation

Study Shows Factors Affecting Molecule Motion in Cells

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Using large-scale computer simulations, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have identified the most important factors affecting how molecules move through the crowded environment inside living cells.

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Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Zebrafish, Gastro Intestinal, Colorectal Cancer, Microbes, National Institutes Of Health (NIH), Burroughs Wellcome Fund

Gut Microbes Promote Cell Turnover by a Well-Known Pathway

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Microbes matter -- perhaps more than anyone realizes -- in basic biological development and, maybe, they could be a target for reducing cancer risks, according to University of Oregon researchers.

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Evolutionary Biology, Nuclear Receptors, Biology, University Of Oregon, University of Queensland, Emory University, Evolution

Evolutionary Tinkering Produced Complex Proteins with Diverse Functions

By reconstructing an ancient protein and tracing how it subtly changed over vast periods of time to produce scores of modern-day descendants, scientists have shown how evolution tinkers with early forms and leaves the impression that complexity evolved many times.

Medicine

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Dna Repair, alkylation, Chemotherapy, Dna Replication, Glycosylation, ethenoadenine, AlkD, HEAT repeats, Structural Biology, Mutagenesis, Cancer

Newly Discovered DNA Repair Mechanism

Researchers at Vanderbilt University, Pennsylvania State University and the University of Pittsburgh have discovered a fundamentally new way that DNA-repair enzymes detect and fix damage to the chemical bases that form the letters in the genetic code.

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Biochemistry, Cells, Proteins, STIM1, Calcium Channel, Calcium Signaling, Excitable Cells, Non-excitable Cells, Orai Channel, Voltage-operated Calcium Channel, L-type Channel, Immune Cells

Protein Provides Link Between Calcium Signaling in Excitable and Non-Excitable Cells

A calcium-sensing protein, STIM1, known to activate store-operated calcium channels has been found to also inhibit voltage-operated calcium channels.

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Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Stress Hormone Blocks Testosterone’s Effects

High levels of the stress hormone cortisol play a critical role in blocking testosterone's influence on competition and domination, according to new psychology research at The University of Texas at Austin.

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Biology, Cell Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Material Science, Biomechanics, Industrial Engineering, Molecular Physics, Nanotechnology, Micromachines/Nanotechnology, Polymer Chemistry

Striding Towards a New Dawn for Electronics

Conductive polymers are plastic materials with high electrical conductivity that promise to revolutionize a wide range of products including TV displays, solar cells, and biomedical sensors. A team of McGill University researchers have now reported how to visualize and study the process of energy transport along one single conductive polymer molecule at a time, a key step towards bringing these exciting new applications to market.

Medicine

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Demethylation Mechanism Pinpointed in APC Gene Mutants

Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah demonstrate in a study featured today in Cell the mechanism by which mutation of the APC gene affects a cellular process known as DNA methylation.

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Researchers Map Thousands of MAPK Protein Interactions

Investigators, led by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have mapped a huge network of protein interactions involving Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways. Their study will be published in the advanced online edition of Nature Methods on September 19.

Science

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Vision, rods, Cones, Biology, Neuroscience, Eyes, Sleep, Internal Body Clock

Tick Tock: Rods Help Set Internal Clocks, Biologist Says

Rod cells – one of three kinds of exquisitely photosensitive cells found in the retina of the eye – are surprisingly found to be the only ones responsible for “setting” our internal clocks in low light.

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Cancer Research

Molecule 968 Binds Glutaminase and Starves Cancer Cells

Researchers have long believed that starving cancer cells of glutamine, which cancer cells require in larger quantities than normal cells, would help fight some cancers. Now, they have discovered a molecule that does the job.

Science

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Microscopy, DNA, RNA, cell, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology

Nature Study Shows How Molecules Escape from the Nucleus

By constructing a microscope apparatus that achieves resolution never before possible in living cells, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have illuminated the molecular interactions that occur during one of the most important “trips” in all of biology: the journey of individual messenger Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules from the nucleus into the cytoplasm (the area between the nucleus and cell membrane) so that proteins can be made.

Medicine

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Protein, Amino Acid, Biochemistry

Your Body Recycling Itself – Captured on Film

Proteins are made up of a chain of amino acids, and scientists have known since the 1980s that first one in the chain determines the lifetime of a protein. McGill researchers have finally discovered how the cell identifies this first amino acid – and caught it on camera.







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