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Medicine

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Best Treatment Option Written in Cancer's Genetic Script

Acute myeloid leukaemia study finds personalised therapy is possible.

Medicine

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Andrew Feinberg, Pancreatic Cancer, Epigenetic, Metastases, Tumor

Potentially Reversible Changes in Gene Control 'Prime' Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Spread

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A multicenter team of researchers reports that a full genomic analysis of tumor samples from a small number of people who died of pancreatic cancer suggests that chemical changes to DNA that do not affect the DNA sequence itself yet control how it operates confer survival advantages on subsets of pancreatic cancer cells.

Science

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Genomics, Environment, Antarctic, Ocean, Diatoms, Evolution, Ecosystem, Genetics, Phytoplankton, Adaptation, Eukaryotes, eukaryotic biology, Population Genetics

Tracking Antarctic Adaptations in Diatoms

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An international team of researchers conducted a comparative genomic analysis to gain insights into the genome structure and evolution of the diatom Fragillariopsis cylindrus, as well as its role in the Southern Ocean.

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Scientists Find New Genetic Influences on Fat Distribution

Texas Biomed scientists part of consortium finding new areas of genetic influence for body fat distribution in multiethnic study

Science

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Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Fruit Flies

Scientists Engineer Animals with Ancient Genes to Test Causes of Evolution

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Scientists at the University of Chicago have created the first genetically modified animals containing reconstructed ancient genes, which they used to test the evolutionary effects of genetic changes that happened in the deep past on the animals’ biology and fitness.

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Common Epilepsies Share Genetic Overlap with Rare Types

Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian showed that several genes implicated in rare forms of pediatric epilepsy also contribute to common forms of the disorder.

Science

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Genetics, Genome, Human Genome Sequence, Precision Medicine, Disease Risk, Genetic Predisposition, UTHealth , boerwinkle

UTHealth Study Outlines Framework for Identifying Disease Risk in Genome Sequence

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– Imagine a day when you visit the doctor’s office for your annual physical. Your physician orders routine tests – cholesterol, glucose and blood count – but they also order a sequence of your genome, all 3 billion letters of it. Routine genomic testing is not far away, according to researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

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“Mysterious” Non-Protein-Coding RNAs Play Important Roles in Gene Expression

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Enhancers boost the rate of gene expression from nearby protein-coding genes so a cell can pump out more of a needed protein molecule. A mysterious subset of non-coding RNAs - enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are transcribed from enhancer sequences. Shedding new light on these elusive eRNAs, researchers showed that CBP, an enzyme that activates transcription from enhancers, binds directly to eRNAs to control patterns of gene expression by acetylation.

Medicine

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Molecular Biology, Genetics, DNA, PCR, Left-handed DNA, Infectious Disease, Diagnoses Disease

DNA Duplicator Small Enough to Hold in Your Hand

Left-handed DNA is the mirror image of the DNA found in all living things. It has the same physical properties as regular, right-handed DNA but it does not participate in most biological reactions. As a result, when fluorescently tagged L-DNA is added to a PCR sample, it behaves in an identical way to the regular DNA and provides a fluorescent light signal that reports information about the molecular reactions taking place and can be used to control them.

Medicine

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mRNA, Protein Synthesis

Direct Communication Between Cell’s Surveillance and Protein Synthesizing Machinery Eliminates Genetic Errors

New research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine describes a mechanism by which an essential quality control system in cells identifies and destroys faulty genetic material. The findings were published online December 23 in Nature Communications.

Medicine

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Genotyping, Clopidogrel, CYP2C19 testing, DNA, gene activation, cardiac stent, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Cardiac Catheterization, blocked artery, Heart, Heart Attack And Stroke

University of Maryland Medical Center Offers Genetic Testing as Standard of Care to Help Improve Outcomes for Heart Stent Patients

The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) is now offering a simple genetic test to patients who receive heart stents to determine whether they have a genetic deficiency that affects how they respond to a common drug to prevent blood clots. Patients are typically given the medication, clopidogrel, to prevent cardiovascular events after having a stent placed in a coronary artery to treat a blockage.

Medicine

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Plus-Sized Fly: A Model to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Human Obesity

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The fly sheds light on how the brain acts to signal 'fullness' and the possibility of conferring resilience against the impact of high-fat diets

Medicine

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Roswell Park, Prostate Cancer, androgen-deprivation therapy

Unique Gene Signature Predicts Potentially Lethal Prostate Cancers

Standard therapy for prostate cancer, the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men, is based on blocking androgens, the male sex hormones. However, for some men, prostate cancer recurs despite androgen-deprivation therapy. A team of scientists led by Irwin Gelman, PhD, Professor of Oncology in the Department of Cancer Genetics at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, has identified an 11-gene signature unique to advanced recurrent prostate cancer that they believe will help to identify these aggressive and potentially fatal prostate cancers sooner. The findings have been published online ahead of print in the journal Oncotarget.

Medicine

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Gene Mutations, carcijnogens, DNA

Roswell Park Researchers Offer Novel Insight Into Genetic Changes Leading to Cancer

BUFFALO, N.Y. — Predisposition to cancer and cancer progression can result from gene mutations that cause elevated rates of genetic damage. Similarly, carcinogens, including some that are used in chemotherapy during cancer treatment, act by damaging the DNA. A new study from Roswell Park Cancer Institute offers insights into the mechanisms that can lead to genetic mutations and proposes opportunities for developing prognostic tests for specific blood disorders and blood cancers based on these striking findings. The study has been published online ahead of print in the journal PLOS Genetics.

Medicine

Science

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Troy, Byzantine, Diseases, Ancient, Health, DNA, Genome

Byzantine Skeleton Yields 800-Year-Old Genomes From a Fatal Infection

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Writing this week (Jan. 10, 2017) in the journal eLife, a team led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Caitlin Pepperell and McMaster University's Hendrik Poinar provides insight into the everyday hazards of life in the late Byzantine Empire, sometime around the early 13th century, as well as the evolution of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a common bacterial pathogen.

Science

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Fruit Fly, computational ethology, behavioral genetics

Neuroscientist Probes Tiny World of the Fruit Fly to Discover Sleep/Eating/Activity Connection

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The humble fruit fly has proved to be a fruitful research subject for Bowling Green State University neuroscientist Dr. Robert Huber and colleagues from Scripps Research Institute in Florida and elsewhere. The collaborators’ research into their behavior has helped expand our understanding of some important neurobiological connections between eating and sleep — including the infamous “food coma” felt after a big meal.

Medicine

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Prostate Cancer, Prostate, genes, Precision Medicine, princess margaret cancer centre, University Health Network

Prostate Cancer Researchers Discover Genetic Fingerprint to Identify How and When Disease Initially Spreads

Canadian prostate cancer researchers have discovered the genetic fingerprint that explains why up to 30 per cent of men with potentially curable localized prostate cancer develop aggressive disease that spreads following radiotherapy or surgery.

Medicine

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Prostate Cancer, Prostate, genes, BRCA2 gene, BRCA2 gene mutation, prostate cancer therapy, princess margaret cancer centre, University Health Network

Prostate Cancer Team Cracks Genetic Code to Show Why Inherited Disease Can Turn Lethal

Canadian and Australian prostate cancer researchers have discovered a key piece in the genetic puzzle of why men born with a BRCA2 mutation may develop aggressive localized cancers that resist treatment and become lethal for up to 50 per cent of patients within five years.

Medicine

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Cancer, Breast Cancer, metaplastic carcinoma, CCN6

Researchers Find Key Genetic Driver for Rare Type of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

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By developing a new mouse model to study a poorly understood protein, researchers uncovered its link to metaplastic breast cancer, opening the door to better understanding of this challenging breast cancer subtype.

Medicine

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Physiology, Schizophrenia, Nervous System, Mental Illness, Genes and Schizophrenia, Neuroplasticity

Nerve-Signaling Protein Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia

Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that regulates a gene associated with schizophrenia. The study’s findings have significant implications for schizophrenia treatment.







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