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Study: Hormone Therapy May Not Protect Against Alzheimer’s Disease

The latest study on hormone therapy and Alzheimer’s disease shows no relationship between taking the drugs and whether you may develop the disease years later. Some previous studies have shown that hormone therapy may increase the risk of the disease, while others have shown that it may reduce the risk. The new study was published in the February 15, 2017, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Medicine

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Breast Cancer, 21 gene assay, 21-gene expression, early-stage breast cancer, MD Anderson Cancer Center

More Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer May Be Able to Avoid Chemotherapy in the Future

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Women with early-stage breast cancer who had an intermediate risk recurrence score (RS) from a 21-gene expression assay had similar outcomes, regardless of whether they received chemotherapy, a new study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer finds.

Medicine

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Signals From Fat May Aid Diagnostics and Treatments

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Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have identified a route by which fat also can deliver a form of small RNAs called microRNAs that helps to regulate other organs. This mechanism may offer the potential to develop an entirely new therapeutic approach.

Medicine

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Brain Cancer, Yale Cancer Center, CRISPR, American Brain Tumor Association, CRISPR-Cas9

Study Points to Potential New Brain Cancer Treatment

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A recent Yale study may have found a new way to fight brain cancer.

Science

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Cancer, Cell Division, cell

Scientists Discover How the Cells in Skin and Organ Linings Maintain Constant Cell Numbers

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Research published today in Nature from scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah shows how epithelial cells naturally turn over, maintaining constant numbers between cell division and cell death.

Medicine

Science

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Scripps Florida Scientists Take Aim at Obesity-Linked Protein

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In a study recently published online in the journal Molecular Metabolism, Chakraborty and his colleagues have shown that deleting the gene for this protein, known as IP6K1, protects animal models from both obesity and diabetes.

Science

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Cancer, DNA, Glucose, Metabolism, CNA

DNA Patterns Can Unlock How Glucose Metabolism Drives Cancer, Study Finds

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Less aggressive cancers are known to have an intact genome—the complete set of genes in a cell—while the genome of more aggressive cancers tends to have a great deal of abnormalities. Now, a new multi-year study of DNA patterns in tumor cells suggests that these aberrant genetic signatures are not random but reflect selective forces in tumor evolution.

Medicine

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Microbiology, Astrobiology, Metabolic Activity, Limit

Researchers Look for Life's Lower Limits

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Investigating the lower bound of energy required for life helps us understand ecological constraints on other planetary bodies in our solar system as well as our own. In a new study, researchers analyze cellular processes across species and sizes of bacteria, to zoom in on life's minimal energy requirements.

Science

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Cadherin, Cell Adhesion, super-resolution microscopy

Illuminating the Contacts

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Using super-resolution microscopy, an international research team led by Assistant Professor Pakorn (Tony) Kanchanawong from the Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore (MBI) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Department of Biomedical Engineering at NUS, as well as Dr Cristina Bertocchi, Research Fellow at MBI, has revealed, for the first time, how cadherin-based cell-cell contacts are organised.

Medicine

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Ovarian Cancer, Gynecology, Cancer, Genetics, genes, Cell Biology, Obgyn

Analyzing Copies of Genes Offers New Treatment Possibilities for Ovarian Cancer

A team of 18 University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center researchers has developed a new tool to analyze an often overlooked aspect of cancer genetics — an alteration that results in the loss or gain in a copy of a gene. This change, known as somatic copy-number alterations, may be key to disease progression and might offer new therapeutic approaches for ovarian cancer and other malignancies.

Medicine

Science

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Alzheimer's Disease, Calcium, cell energy, Mitochondria, Protein, Cell Culture, Gene, Disease Development, Pooja Jadiya, Alyssa A. Lombardi, Jonathan P. Lambert, Timothy S. Luongo, Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò, John W. Elrod, Temple University, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

Imbalance of Calcium in a Cell's Energy Factory May Drive Alzheimer's Disease

Calcium in the mitochondria -- the energy factory of cells -- may be one of the keys to understanding and treating Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Researchers at Temple University have now identified how an imbalance of calcium ions in the mitochondria may contribute to cell death and, specifically, neurodegeneration in brain cells during Alzheimer's and dementia. The findings could eventually point to new therapies for preventing or delaying these diseases. The team will present its work during the 61st Meeting of the Biophysical Society.

Medicine

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Alzheimer's Disease, Peptides, Neurodegenerative Diseases, cell toxicity, amyloid hypothesis, Antonio De Maio, Isabel Rivera, David M. Cauvi , Nelson Arispe, University of California, San Diego, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

New Understandings of Cell Death Show Promise for Preventing Alzheimer’s

Currently, the predominant theory behind Alzheimer’s disease is the “amyloid hypothesis,” which states that abnormally increased levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides outside of brain cells produce a variety of low molecular weight Aβ aggregates that are toxic to the nervous system. These Aβ aggregates interact directly with target cells and lead to cell death. During the Biophysical Society’s meeting, being held Feb. 11-15, 2017, Antonio De Maio will present his work hunting for the specific mechanisms behind Aβ-induced toxicity to cells, or cytoxicity.

Science

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disease therapeutics, cellular process, Autophagy, Protein, Beclin-1, Therapeutic, Matthew Ranaghan, Colin Garvie, Doug Daniels, Beth Levin, Jose Perez, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, University of Dayton, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

New Protein Development May Hold the Key to New Disease Therapeutics

The 2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded the for discoveries of mechanisms of autophagy, a cellular process much like recycling, where new cellular components are generated from old and damaged ones. Though a relatively simple process conceptually, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes and genes essential to the process could be a key component for treating diseases. Now, researchers have reported the first bacterial creation and functional analysis of a protein essential to initiate autophagy: a human homologous gene of Beclin-1. The researchers will present their findings during the Biophysical Society meeting, Feb. 11-15, 2017.

Medicine

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genes, Gene Editing, Ethics, Bioethics

Two From UW-Madison Contribute to Human Gene Editing Report

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The National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine issued a report Tuesday focused on human genome editing. It lays out principles and recommendations for governments grappling with how to handle rapid advances in human genome-editing technology as it applies to human health and disease. Two University of Wisconsin–Madison experts served on the 22-member international committee that compiled the report.

Medicine

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Arizona News Releases, Dr Peter Cohen, Dr Sandra Gendler, Immunotherapy, Medical Research, news releases

Researchers Identify New Process to Raise Natural Armies of Cancer-Targeting T Lymphocytes Outside the Body

Mayo Clinic and University of Washington researchers have discovered a new culture method that unlocks the natural fighter function of immune T cells when they are passing through the bloodstream. This allows T cell armies to be raised directly from blood that naturally recognize and target proteins that are present on most human cancers. The results are published in the Feb. 14 issue of Oncotarget.

Science

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Biorobotics, Muscle Cells, biological systems, Biocomputing, muscle-cell diodes

Researchers Develop ‘Living Diode’ Using Cardiac Muscle Cells

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Research from the University of Notre Dame brings scientists one step closer to developing new forms of biorobotics and novel treatment approaches for several muscle-related health problems such as muscular degenerative disorders, arrhythmia and limb loss.

Medicine

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Bone Metastasis, Bone Metastases, pain care, palliative and end-of-life care, Palliative Care, Radiation Therapy

Radiation Therapy Continues to Be Gold Standard for Palliative Care of Painful Bone Metastases

The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) recently published an updated clinical guideline that underscores the safety and effectiveness of palliative radiation therapy (RT) for treating painful bone metastases.

Medicine

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Mount Sinai Health System, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Nicole Dubois, Mindich Child Health and Development Institute

Researchers Identify a Population of Cells Linked to the Development of the Heart’s Ventricular Chambers

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These findings could provide new insight and understanding of congenital heart defects.

Medicine

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sperm cells, egg fertilization, fusexin, Cell Fusion, Zika research, Dengue Virus, Hap2, Cells, Disease

Sperm-Egg Fusion Proteins Have Same Structure as Those Used by Zika and Other Viruses

The protein which helps the sperm and egg fuse together in sexual reproduction are part of a larger family of proteins that helps other cells bind together to create larger organs, and which also allows viruses like Zika and Dengue to invade healthy cells.

Medicine

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Diabetes, Genetics, Epigenetic, DNA regulation, Type 2 Diabetes, Transcription

Diabetes in Your DNA? Scientists Zero in on the Genetic Signature of Risk

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Many genetic mutations have been linked to Type 2 diabetes, but no clear genetic signature has emerged. Now, new results may explain how multiple genetic flaws can lead to the same disease: They seem to change the way certain cells in the pancreas “read” their genes.







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