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Science

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Enzyme, Biofuel, Protein, Biology, Bacteria

ORNL Fundamental Discovery Casts Enzymes in New Light

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A tree outside researcher Pratul Agarwal’s office window provided the inspiration for a discovery that may ultimately lead to drugs with fewer side effects.

Medicine

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Metabolic Protein Plays Unexpected Role in Tumor Cell Formation and Growth

The embryonic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has a well-established role in metabolism and is highly expressed in human cancers. Now, a team led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports in advance online publication of the journal Nature that PKM2 has important non-metabolic functions in cancer formation.

Science

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Protein Interactions, Cancer, Oncology, cancer drug development, Acetyl Group, Acetylated Proteins, Ubc12, Dcn1, Structural Biology

Molecule Serves as a Key in Some Protein Interactions

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St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists discover that a post-production addition to most proteins can serve as a key to mediate protein interactions, which are at the foundation of life.

Medicine

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Sickle Cell Disease, Sickle Cell Anemia, Sickle Cell Treatment, protein modulation, Developmental Biology, hematology oncology, Hematological Disorders

Researchers Reveal Potential Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease

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Few options are availabe to prevent the painful episodes of sickle cell disease. But a University of Michigan Health System study reveals a protein trigger that could lead to a new treatment for sickle cell patients.

Medicine

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Sadoshima, Mitochondria, genes, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Ppar Alpha, Sirt1, Heart Failure

“Heart-Breaking” Starvation Response

A protective response to starvation may promote heart failure, according to a study just published in Cell Metabolism. Two proteins that team up to conserve energy when food is scarce also limit energy production in the heart—a situation that can prove fatal when the heart is stressed and in need of an energy boost.

Science

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Meiosis, Chromosomes, Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Drosphilia

Pairing Up: How Chromosomes Find Each Other

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After more than a century of study, mysteries still remain about the process of meiosis—a special type of cell division that helps insure genetic diversity in sexually-reproducing organisms. Now, researchers at Stowers Institute for Medical Research shed light on an early and critical step in meiosis.

Science

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Cell Cycle, endocycle, Cell Growth, Mitosis, Agriculture, Medicine

Research Team Clarifies the Mechanics Behind the First New Cell Cycle to be Described in More than Two Decades

An international team of researchers led by investigators in the U.S. and Germany has shed light on the inner workings of the endocycle, a common cell cycle that fuels growth in plants, animals and some human tissues and is responsible for generating up to half of the Earth’s biomass. This discovery, led by a geneticist at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and reported Oct. 30 in Nature, leads to a new understanding of how cells grow and how rates of cell growth might be increased or decreased, which has important implications in both agriculture and medicine.

Medicine

Science

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Signaling Pathways, Transcription Factors, Cancer, Gene Expression

How Major Signaling Pathways Are Wired to Our Genome Gives New Insight Into Disease Processes

Whitehead Institute scientists have determined that master transcription factors determine the genes regulated by key signaling pathways. By manipulating these pathways, scientists may find new ways to treat cancer and other diseases.

Science

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Cardiology, Heart Rate

Scientists Discover New Pathway Critical to Heart Arrhythmia

University of Maryland School of Medicine researchers have uncovered a previously unknown molecular pathway that is critical to understanding cardiac arrhythmia and other heart muscle problems. Understanding the basic science of heart and muscle function could open the door to new treatments.

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New Discovery Illuminates Proton Channel Gene in Dinoflagellates

A 40-year search for a gene that causes some one-celled sea creatures to flash at night and is also found in others that produce deadly red tides, has been successfully culminated by a group of scientists led by Thomas E. DeCoursey, PhD, professor of biophysics and physiology at Rush University Medical Center.







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