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Genetics

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Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Genetics, Psychiatry, genome wide association studies, GWAS, Radiology, Diagnostics, Genomics

Personality Traits and Psychiatric Disorders Linked to Specific Genomic Locations

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified six loci or regions of the human genome that are significantly linked to personality traits, report researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine in this week’s advance online publication of Nature Genetics. The findings also show correlations with psychiatric disorders.

Medicine

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Her2 Postive Breast Cancer, Herceptin

Researchers Identify Biomarkers of Response to Treatment in Invasive Breast Cancer

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UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and collaborators report Wednesday at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium that they have identified biomarkers they believe can be used as part of a larger model to predict how patients with HER2-positive operative breast cancer will respond to the targeted treatment trastuzumab, commercially known as Herceptin, and chemotherapy.

Medicine

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Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (Ipf), Surfactant Research, Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight, JCI Insight, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric, news, single-cell analysis, single cell genomics

Scientists Unlock Genetic Code of Diseased Lung Cells to Find New Treatments for IPF

Researchers cracked the complete genetic code of individual cells in healthy and diseased human lung tissues to find potential new molecular targets for diagnosing and treating the lethal lung disease Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). Scientists from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, in collaboration with investigators at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, publish their findings Dec. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insights (JCI Insight).

Medicine

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Breast Cancer, Hereditary, Genetic Testing

Mayo Clinic Research Helps Refine Role of Gene Variants in Breast Cancer Risk

Inherited pathogenic variants in protein coding genes BARD1 and RAD51D increase a woman’s likelihood of developing breast cancer, according to research conducted at Mayo Clinic and presented today at the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Medicine

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MERS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Rabies, Virus, Vaccine, genes, Camel, bats, DNA, Protein

Researchers Combine MERS and Rabies Viruses to Create Innovative 2-for-1 Vaccine

In a new study, researchers have modified a rabies virus, so that it has a protein from the MERS virus; this altered virus works as a 2-for-1 vaccine that protects mice against both Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and rabies.

Medicine

Science

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alcohol use disorders, personality traits, Resilience, Genetics, Environment, risk, Influences

Resilience: A Small, Quiet Word with Huge Alcohol Use Disorder Implications

Certain personality traits – such as disinhibition (a lack of restraint) and impulsivity – increase the chances of developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs).

Medicine

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DNA, endogenous retrovirus, Human Genome, provirus

BGSU Researcher: More Ancient Viruses Lurk in Our DNA Than We Thought

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In our recent study, we identified 19 “new” pieces of DNA — left by retroviruses that first infected our ancestors’ germlines hundreds of thousands of years ago –lurking between our own genes.

Medicine

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Cells, Self Repair, Cells Self Repair, Geneticist, 2017 Breakthrough Prize, Harvard Medical School, Stephen J. Elledge , DNA, Biology

Geneticist Stephen J. Elledge Wins Breakthrough Prize

Stephen Elledge, the Gregor Mendel Professor of Genetics and of Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, has been named a 2017 recipient of the Breakthrough Prize, which recognizes paradigm-shifting discoveries in the life sciences, physics and mathematics.  Elledge is being honored for his wide-ranging contributions across multiple fields in biology.

Medicine

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Hemophilia, Gene Therapy, Hemophilia B, Clinical Trial, clotting factor IX, Children's Hospital Of Philadelphia

After One Dose of Gene Therapy, Hemophilia B Patients Maintain Near-Normal Levels of Clotting Factor

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Researchers are reporting the highest and most sustained levels to date of an essential blood-clotting factor IX in patients with the inherited bleeding disorder hemophilia B. After receiving a single dose of an experimental gene therapy in a clinical trial, patients with hemophilia produced near-normal levels of clotting factor IX, allowing them to stop clotting factor infusions and to pursue normal activities of daily life without disabling bleeding episodes.

Science

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Leukemia, t-MNs, clonal hematopoiesis, Genomic Medicine, MD Anderson Cancer Center

Biomarker May Predict Which Formerly Treated Cancer Patients Will Develop Highly Fatal Form of Leukemia

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Patients successfully treated for breast, colon and other cancers can go on to develop an often-fatal form of leukemia, sometimes years after completion of treatment, due to a genetic mutation leading to secondary malignancies known as therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs).

Medicine

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genetics and autism

Landmark Autism Genetic Study Seeking Participants

Families with a loved one on the autism spectrum now have an opportunity to participate in a landmark study researching the genetics of autism. The national study is the largest autism research project to date.

Medicine

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Cancer, Fausto J. Rodriguez, genes, Tumors, Telomerase

Johns Hopkins Researchers Uncover More Genetic Links to Brain Cancer Cell Growth

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Two recently discovered genetic differences between brain cancer cells and normal tissue cells — an altered gene and a snippet of noncoding genetic material — could offer clues to tumor behavior and potential new targets for therapy, Johns Hopkins scientists report.

Medicine

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Penn Scientists Use CRISPR for First Time to Correct Clotting in Newborn and Adult Mice

CRISPR/Cas9, a powerful genome editing tool, is showing promise for efficient correction of disease-causing mutations. For the first time, researchers have developed a dual gene therapy approach to deliver key components of a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting system to mice to treat hemophilia B.

Science

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Diabetes, Insulin, Platypus, Echidna, Monotreme, GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1, Blood Sugar, diabetes treatment, Genetics, Evolution, Venom

Platypus Venom Could Hold Key to Diabetes Treatment

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Australian researchers have discovered remarkable evolutionary changes to insulin regulation in two of the nation's most iconic native animal species – the platypus and the echidna – which could pave the way for new treatments for type 2 diabetes in humans.

Medicine

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β-Klotho gene , DNA, social drinking, Alchohol, Ut Southwestern, Gene

UT Southwestern Researchers’ International Study Zeros in on Gene That Limits Desire to Drink Alcohol

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In the largest study of its kind, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers and colleagues in Europe identified a gene variant that suppresses the desire to drink alcohol.

Science

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Microbiome

Genes, Early Environment Sculpt the Gut Microbiome

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A new study finds that environment and genetics determine relative abundance of specific microbes in the gut. The findings represent an attempt to untangle the forces that shape the gut microbiome, which plays an important role in keeping us healthy.

Medicine

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Biomedicine, Gastroenterology, enteritis, Autoimmune Disease, Melanoma, chronic inflammation, Diarrhea

Successfully Treating Genetically Determined Autoimmune Enteritis

Using targeted immunotherapy, doctors have succeeded in curing a type of autoimmune enteritis caused by a recently discovered genetic mutation. This report comes from researchers at the Department of Biomedicine of the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel. Their results raise new possibilities for the management of diarrhea, which is often a side effect of melanoma treatment.

Medicine

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Parkinson's Disease, Gene Mutation

Gene Mutation Linked to Early Onset of Parkinson’s Disease in Caucasians

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A defect in a gene that produces dopamine in the brain appears to accelerate the onset of Parkinson’s disease, according to new research from Iowa State University. The effect is particularly dramatic for young-to-middle-age adults.

Medicine

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Tp53 Gene, Decitabine, targeted chemotherapy

In Highly Lethal Type of Leukemia, Cancer Gene Predicts Treatment Response

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Patients with the most lethal form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) – based on genetic profiles of their cancers – typically survive for only four to six months after diagnosis, even with aggressive chemotherapy. But new research indicates that such patients, paradoxically, may live longer if they receive a milder chemotherapy drug.

Medicine

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Genetics, Microbiome, gut flora, Animal Research, mice, Cells

Gut’s Microbial Community Shown to Influence Host Gene Expression

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Writing online this week (Nov. 23, 2016) in the journal Molecular Cell, a team of researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison describes new research helping tease out the mechanics of how the gut microbiome communicates with the cells of its host to switch genes on and off. The upshot of the study, another indictment of the so-called Western diet (high in saturated fats, sugar and red meat), reveals how the metabolites produced by the bacteria in the stomach chemically communicate with cells, including cells far beyond the colon, to dictate gene expression and health in its host.







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