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Medicine

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Molecular Biology, Genetics, DNA, PCR, Left-handed DNA, Infectious Disease, Diagnoses Disease

DNA Duplicator Small Enough to Hold in Your Hand

Left-handed DNA is the mirror image of the DNA found in all living things. It has the same physical properties as regular, right-handed DNA but it does not participate in most biological reactions. As a result, when fluorescently tagged L-DNA is added to a PCR sample, it behaves in an identical way to the regular DNA and provides a fluorescent light signal that reports information about the molecular reactions taking place and can be used to control them.

Medicine

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mRNA, Protein Synthesis

Direct Communication Between Cell’s Surveillance and Protein Synthesizing Machinery Eliminates Genetic Errors

New research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine describes a mechanism by which an essential quality control system in cells identifies and destroys faulty genetic material. The findings were published online December 23 in Nature Communications.

Medicine

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Genotyping, Clopidogrel, CYP2C19 testing, DNA, gene activation, cardiac stent, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Cardiac Catheterization, blocked artery, Heart, Heart Attack And Stroke

University of Maryland Medical Center Offers Genetic Testing as Standard of Care to Help Improve Outcomes for Heart Stent Patients

The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) is now offering a simple genetic test to patients who receive heart stents to determine whether they have a genetic deficiency that affects how they respond to a common drug to prevent blood clots. Patients are typically given the medication, clopidogrel, to prevent cardiovascular events after having a stent placed in a coronary artery to treat a blockage.

Medicine

Science

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Plus-Sized Fly: A Model to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Human Obesity

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The fly sheds light on how the brain acts to signal 'fullness' and the possibility of conferring resilience against the impact of high-fat diets

Medicine

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Roswell Park, Prostate Cancer, androgen-deprivation therapy

Unique Gene Signature Predicts Potentially Lethal Prostate Cancers

Standard therapy for prostate cancer, the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men, is based on blocking androgens, the male sex hormones. However, for some men, prostate cancer recurs despite androgen-deprivation therapy. A team of scientists led by Irwin Gelman, PhD, Professor of Oncology in the Department of Cancer Genetics at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, has identified an 11-gene signature unique to advanced recurrent prostate cancer that they believe will help to identify these aggressive and potentially fatal prostate cancers sooner. The findings have been published online ahead of print in the journal Oncotarget.

Medicine

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Gene Mutations, carcijnogens, DNA

Roswell Park Researchers Offer Novel Insight Into Genetic Changes Leading to Cancer

BUFFALO, N.Y. — Predisposition to cancer and cancer progression can result from gene mutations that cause elevated rates of genetic damage. Similarly, carcinogens, including some that are used in chemotherapy during cancer treatment, act by damaging the DNA. A new study from Roswell Park Cancer Institute offers insights into the mechanisms that can lead to genetic mutations and proposes opportunities for developing prognostic tests for specific blood disorders and blood cancers based on these striking findings. The study has been published online ahead of print in the journal PLOS Genetics.

Medicine

Science

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Troy, Byzantine, Diseases, Ancient, Health, DNA, Genome

Byzantine Skeleton Yields 800-Year-Old Genomes From a Fatal Infection

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Writing this week (Jan. 10, 2017) in the journal eLife, a team led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Caitlin Pepperell and McMaster University's Hendrik Poinar provides insight into the everyday hazards of life in the late Byzantine Empire, sometime around the early 13th century, as well as the evolution of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a common bacterial pathogen.

Science

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Fruit Fly, computational ethology, behavioral genetics

Neuroscientist Probes Tiny World of the Fruit Fly to Discover Sleep/Eating/Activity Connection

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The humble fruit fly has proved to be a fruitful research subject for Bowling Green State University neuroscientist Dr. Robert Huber and colleagues from Scripps Research Institute in Florida and elsewhere. The collaborators’ research into their behavior has helped expand our understanding of some important neurobiological connections between eating and sleep — including the infamous “food coma” felt after a big meal.

Medicine

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Prostate Cancer, Prostate, genes, Precision Medicine, princess margaret cancer centre, University Health Network

Prostate Cancer Researchers Discover Genetic Fingerprint to Identify How and When Disease Initially Spreads

Canadian prostate cancer researchers have discovered the genetic fingerprint that explains why up to 30 per cent of men with potentially curable localized prostate cancer develop aggressive disease that spreads following radiotherapy or surgery.

Medicine

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Prostate Cancer, Prostate, genes, BRCA2 gene, BRCA2 gene mutation, prostate cancer therapy, princess margaret cancer centre, University Health Network

Prostate Cancer Team Cracks Genetic Code to Show Why Inherited Disease Can Turn Lethal

Canadian and Australian prostate cancer researchers have discovered a key piece in the genetic puzzle of why men born with a BRCA2 mutation may develop aggressive localized cancers that resist treatment and become lethal for up to 50 per cent of patients within five years.

Medicine

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Cancer, Breast Cancer, metaplastic carcinoma, CCN6

Researchers Find Key Genetic Driver for Rare Type of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

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By developing a new mouse model to study a poorly understood protein, researchers uncovered its link to metaplastic breast cancer, opening the door to better understanding of this challenging breast cancer subtype.

Medicine

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Physiology, Schizophrenia, Nervous System, Mental Illness, Genes and Schizophrenia, Neuroplasticity

Nerve-Signaling Protein Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia

Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that regulates a gene associated with schizophrenia. The study’s findings have significant implications for schizophrenia treatment.

Medicine

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Survivorship, Breast Cancer, Genetic Testing, Estrogen Receptor Positive, breast cancer index

Yale Doctor: Breast Cancer Test Helps Determine Who Will Benefit From Long-Term Therapy

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Medicine

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Glioblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, Immunotherapy, Gene Therapy, Brain Cancer, Cancer, Malignant Brain Tumor, Brain Tumor

Immunotherapy, Gene Therapy Combination Shows Promise Against Glioblastoma

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In a new University of Michigan study, gene therapy deployed with immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrates potential benefit for devastating brain cancer.

Medicine

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cell, DNA, Dna Damage, Malnutrition, CHORI

Zinc Eaten at Levels Found in Biofortified Crops Reduces ‘Wear and Tear’ on DNA

A new study by researchers from the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) shows that a modest 4 milligrams of extra zinc a day in the diet can have a profound, positive impact on cellular health that helps fight infections and diseases. This amount of zinc is equivalent to what biofortified crops like zinc rice and zinc wheat can add to the diet of vulnerable, nutrient deficient populations.

Medicine

Science

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Whitehead Institute, Rudolf Jaenisch, zika virus, Cerebral Cortex

Scientists Engineer Gene Pathway to Grow Brain Organoids with Surface Folding

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Whitehead Institute researchers provide insight into a specific gene pathway that appears to regulate the growth, structure, and organization of the human cortex. They also demonstrate that 3D human cerebral organoids can be effective in modeling the molecular, cellular, and anatomical processes of human brain development.

Science

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Genome Study Reveals Widespread “Gray Zone” of Animals Transitioning From One Species to Two

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New research publishing December 27 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology characterizes the ability of populations to interbreed and exchange genes as a function of the level divergence of their genomes.

Science

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Neural Circuits, Neuron, Biology, Nervous System, Roundworm, C Elegans, transgenic actuators, gene expression

Biology’s “Breadboard”

Understanding how the nervous system of the roundworm C elegans works will give insights into how our vastly more complex brains function and is the subject of a paper in Nature Methods.

Medicine

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Hemophilia, Hemophilia B, Factor IX, oral delivery system, Capsule, X-linked, clotting factor IX

Capsule for Severe Bleeding Disorder Moves Closer to Reality

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Researchers are working to develop a pill to treat this serious inherited bleeding disorder. Oral delivery of the treatment--clotting factor IX--would allow individuals with type B hemophilia to swallow a pill rather than be subjected to several weekly injections of factor IX to control potentially fatal bleeding episodes.

Medicine

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Linking Human Genome Sequences to Health Data Will Change Clinical Medicine, Says Penn Expert

The value of intersecting the sequencing of individuals’ exomes (all expressed genes) or full genomes to find rare genetic variants -- on a large scale -- with their detailed electronic health record (EHR) information has “myriad benefits, including the illumination of basic human biology, the early identification of preventable and treatable illnesses, and the identification and validation of new therapeutic targets,” wrote Daniel J. Rader, MD, chair of the Department of Genetics, in the Perelman School of Medicine at Penn.







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