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Science

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bats, Echolocation, Wireless Communication

Bats Avoid Collisions by Calling Less in a Crowd

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Do bats adjust their echolocation calls in response to other bat calls

Medicine

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Immune Cells, Immunotherapy, Resistance

New Study Highlights Role for Immune Cells in Cancer’s Ability to Evade Immunotherapy

One of the main reasons cancer remains difficult to treat is that cancer cells have developed a multitude of mechanisms that allow them to evade destruction by the immune system. One of these escape mechanisms involves a type of immune cell called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). A recent study led by Sharon Evans, PhD, Professor of Oncology and Immunology at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, provides new insight into how MDSCs enable tumor cells to circumvent immune attack and offer the potential for improving cancer immunotherapy. The research has been published today in the journal eLife.

Medicine

Science

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Whitehead Institute, Rudolf Jaenisch, zika virus, Cerebral Cortex

Scientists Engineer Gene Pathway to Grow Brain Organoids with Surface Folding

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Whitehead Institute researchers provide insight into a specific gene pathway that appears to regulate the growth, structure, and organization of the human cortex. They also demonstrate that 3D human cerebral organoids can be effective in modeling the molecular, cellular, and anatomical processes of human brain development.

Medicine

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Scripps Florida Scientists Uncover New Way to Defeat Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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A new study led by scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) sheds light on a signaling circuit in cells that drives therapy resistance in prostate cancer. The researchers found that targeting the components of this circuit suppresses advanced prostate cancer development.

Medicine

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myelodysplasia syndromes , MDs, AML, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Proteomics, Nature Immunology, Molecular Target, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Hematology, Genetics

Possible Treatment Targets Found for Pre-Malignant Bone Marrow Disorders

Cincinnati Children’s researchers report in Nature Immunology a new mechanism that controls blood cell function and several possible molecular targets for treating myelodysplasia syndromes (MDS) – a group of pre-malignant disorders in which bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a fast-spreading blood cancer that can be deadly if not treated promptly.

Medicine

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esophogeal cancer, Koeffler, tumor heterogeneity, esophogeal tumor

Study Unmasks the Genetic Complexity of Cancer Cells Within the Same Tumor

A new study led by Cedars-Sinai investigators dramatically illustrates the complexity of cancer by identifying more than 2,000 genetic mutations in tissue samples of esophageal tumors. The findings reveal that even different areas of individual tumors have various genetic patterns.

Science

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Genome Study Reveals Widespread “Gray Zone” of Animals Transitioning From One Species to Two

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New research publishing December 27 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology characterizes the ability of populations to interbreed and exchange genes as a function of the level divergence of their genomes.

Science

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Cadherin, myosin II, actin cortex, Cytokinesis, RHO, non-junctional, Cluster, HMR-1, NMY-2, C. Elegans

Stability Without Junctions

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Scientists from the Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore at the National University of Singapore have discovered that cadherin clusters, which are well known for forming junctions between cells, also play a role in stabilising the cell cortex.

Medicine

Science

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Whitehead Institute, Cancer, Biology

Naturally Occurring Mechanism of Cancer Drug-Resistance May Itself Be a Treatment Target

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The use of proteasome inhibitors to treat cancer has been greatly limited by the ability of cancer cells to develop resistance to these drugs. But Whitehead Institute researchers have found a mechanism underlying this resistance—a mechanism that naturally occurs in many diverse cancer types and that may expose vulnerabilities to drugs that spur the natural cell-death process.

Science

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Neural Circuits, Neuron, Biology, Nervous System, Roundworm, C Elegans, transgenic actuators, gene expression

Biology’s “Breadboard”

Understanding how the nervous system of the roundworm C elegans works will give insights into how our vastly more complex brains function and is the subject of a paper in Nature Methods.

Medicine

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RNA, polypeptide, Cancer, Gene, cellular processes, Cell And Tumour Biology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Non-coding RNA, DNA, Genome, Protein Coding, Muscle Regeneration, cellular function

Research Reveals the Importance of Long Non-Coding RNA Regulating Cellular Processes

Scientific research over the past decade has concentrated almost exclusively on the 2 percent of the genome’s protein coding regions, virtually ignoring the other 98 percent, a vast universe of non-coding genetic material previously dismissed as nothing more than ‘junk.’ Now, a team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) reveals that one type — called long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) — may be critically important for controlling cellular components in a tissue-specific manner. Published online today in the journal Nature, the new research points to an lncRNA’s key role in helping control processes related to muscle regeneration and cancer.

Medicine

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Cardiac, Stem Cell, Synthetic

Synthetic Stem Cells Could Offer Therapeutic Benefits, Reduced Risks

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Researchers have developed a synthetic version of a cardiac stem cell. These synthetic stem cells offer therapeutic benefits comparable to those from natural stem cells and could reduce some of the risks associated with stem cell therapies.

Medicine

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HIV, AIDS, Interferon Type I, CD4 T cell, Immune activation, Helper T Cells, Cd8 T Cells

Protein That Activates Immune Response Harms Body’s Ability to Fight HIV

In findings they call counterintuitive, a team of UCLA-led researchers suggests that blocking a protein, which is crucial to initiating the immune response against viral infections, may actually help combat HIV.

Medicine

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Linking Human Genome Sequences to Health Data Will Change Clinical Medicine, Says Penn Expert

The value of intersecting the sequencing of individuals’ exomes (all expressed genes) or full genomes to find rare genetic variants -- on a large scale -- with their detailed electronic health record (EHR) information has “myriad benefits, including the illumination of basic human biology, the early identification of preventable and treatable illnesses, and the identification and validation of new therapeutic targets,” wrote Daniel J. Rader, MD, chair of the Department of Genetics, in the Perelman School of Medicine at Penn.

Medicine

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Embryonic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, Cardiomyocytes, Pacemaker Cells, Pacemaker, Israel, Biological Pacemaker, Cardiovascular

Canadian-Israeli Development: A New Biological Pacemaker

Using human embryonic stem cells to create a type of cardiac cells known as sinotrial (SA) node pacemaker cells, researchers have developed a biological pacemaker that overcomes many of the limitations of electrical pacemakers.

Medicine

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Cancer, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Childhood Cancer, Chemotherapy, Radiation

Study Potentially Explains Vulnerability of Young Cancer Patients to Treatment Toxicities

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Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute say they have discovered a potential explanation for why brain and heart tissues in very young children are more sensitive to collateral damage from cancer treatment than older individuals.

Medicine

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Cancer Biology, mRNA, Leukemia, obesity-gene, FTO gene, Cancer

Obesity-Associated Protein Could Be Linked to Leukemia Development

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Cancer researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have found an obesity-associated protein’s role in leukemia development and drug response which could lead to more effective therapies for the illness.

Medicine

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Cancer, Precision Medicine

New Precision Medicine Tool Helps Optimize Cancer Treatment

Columbia University researchers have created a user-friendly computational tool that rapidly predicts which genes are implicated in an individual’s cancer and recommends treatments.

Medicine

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T-Cell, tissue resident memory t-cells, Pediatric Cancer, Yale Cancer Center, Immune Cells

Researchers Identify Heterogeneity of Tissue Resident Memory T Cells as Targets of Checkpoint Therapies

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Researchers at Yale Cancer Center and Yale Medicine have identified the critical target of new immune-checkpoint therapies: subsets of immune cells called tissue resident memory (TRM) T cells. In the same research, scientists also found that individual metastatic cancer lesions contain unique sets of TRM cells.

Science

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Firefly Gift-Giving: Composition of ‘Nuptial Gifts’ Revealed, Shedding Light on Postmating Sexual Selection

New research at Tufts University, in collaboration with MIT scientists, reveals the molecular composition of firefly "nuptial gifts", offering the first peek into the content of these special packages and shedding new light on post-mating sexual selection. The findings were published today in Scientific Reports.







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