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Evolution Purged Many Neanderthal Genes From Modern Humans

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Larger populations allowed humans to shed weakly deleterious gene variants that were widespread in Neanderthals.

Medicine

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genes, Genome, Health, Biochemistry, Personalized Medicine, DNA, Medicine

First Cellular Atlas of DNA-Binding Molecule Could Advance Precision Therapies

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Biochemists at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have created the first atlas that maps where molecular tools that can switch genes on and off will bind to the human genome. It is a development they say could enable these tools to be targeted to specific parts of an individual’s genome for use in precision medicine, developing therapies and treating disease.

Medicine

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Medulloblastoma, Cerebellum, Cancer, Dr. Valerie Wallace, eLife, Norrin, Frizzled 4, Genetic Signals, Pathway, Genetic pathway, Preneoplastic Niche , Krembil Research Institute , Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute

Genetic Signaling Pathway Blocks Formation of a Cancer in the Cerebellum

A signaling pathway has the potential to block a type of cancer in the cerebellum, suggests new research from a team at the Krembil Research Institute’s Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute.

Medicine

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Biology, genetics and cancer, Ras inhibitor, monobodies

Researchers Discover Way to Inhibit Major Cancer Gene

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Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have identified a new way to block the action of genetic mutations found in nearly 30 percent of all cancers. John O'Bryan, associate professor of pharmacology in the UIC College of Medicine, and a team of researchers discovered that a synthetic binding protein they call "NS1 monobody," which they created in the lab, can block the activity of the RAS proteins.

Medicine

Science

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DNA mutagenesis, genetic variants, DNA library

New Technique May Speed Search for Genetic Roots of Disease

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A new technique to cheaply and rapidly create sets of DNA fragments that include all possible genetic variants will help scientists distinguish between genetic variants linked to disease and those that are innocuous.

Science

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Integrative Biology of Exercise 7, Exercise, Exercise Physiology, Physical Activity, Obesity, Chronic Disease, Preconception, Reproductive System, Diabetes, Genetics

Dad’s Preconception Exercise May Increase Obesity, Insulin Resistance Risk in Offspring

Fathers who exercise regularly before their children are conceived may program their offspring's genes with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, according to new research from East Carolina University. The surprising results, to be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting, point to the identification of epigenetic markers that may change the process of diagnosis and management of chronic disease.

Medicine

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Integrative Biology of Exercise 7, Exercise, Exercise Physiology, Chronic Disease, Pregnancy, Reproductive System, Genetics, Heart Disease, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation

Exercise During Pregnancy May Reduce Markers of Aging in Offspring

Exercise during pregnancy may be as effective in protecting the next generation from age-related health risks as efforts made during the offspring's own adulthood. Researchers from the University of Kentucky think that short-term lifestyle changes during pregnancy may have a long-lasting effect on future generations. Findings will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Science

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Exercise Adherence, Exercise, Integrative Biology of Exercise 7, Genetic Influences, Dopaminergic, Dopamine

Hate Exercise? It May Be in Your Genes

Genes, specifically those that modulate dopamine in the brain, may play a role in a person’s propensity to embrace or avoid exercise. Rodney Dishman of the University of Georgia will present findings from studies in rats and humans in his talk “Genetics of Exercise Avoidance” at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Medicine

Science

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Ebola, Genome, Virus, Mutation, Glycoprotein, Amino Acid, San Diego, La Jolla, Sequencing, STSI

New TSRI Study Suggests Ebola Can Adapt to Better Target Human Cells

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A new study co-led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) suggests that Ebola virus gained a genetic mutation during the 2013–16 epidemic that appears to have helped it better target human cells.

Medicine

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Wayne State University, Prenatal Genetic Test , Pregnancy

Studies Reveal WSU-Conceived Non-Invasive Prenatal Genetic Test Is Accurate Five Weeks Into Pregnancy

The latest developments in prenatal technology conceived by scientists at the Wayne State University School of Medicine that make it possible to test for genetic disorders a little more than one month into pregnancy were revealed this week in Science Translational Medicine, a journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Science

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Structural Biology, Protein Structure, atomic structure, bHLH-PAS, druggable, Hif1 Alpha, HIF1-alpha, HIF2α, Clock, Bmal1, AHR, Cancer, Argonne National Laboratory

Major Family of Gene-Regulating Proteins Has Drug-Sized Pocket

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An entire class of proteins called transcription factors has largely been ignored by the pharmaceutical industry because it’s difficult to design and screen drugs against them. But a new study from scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute suggests that a key group of transcription factors are in fact ‘druggable,’ including several that could be targeted to treat cancer, metabolic disease, or autoimmune conditions. The paper, published in eLIFE, shows that at least seven bHLH-PAS proteins have pockets where drugs would fit and remain tightly bound.

Science

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REM sleep disorder, Genetic Screening, (Sik3) gene, EEG, Ut Southwestern

Researchers ID First Two Genes Regulating Sleep in Mice Using Genetic Screening

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Researchers have identified the first two core genes that regulate the amount of deep sleep and dreaming, a key development they believe will lead to the discovery of a network of related genes controlling sleep.

Science

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History of genetics, Genetics, Eugenics, Medical Genetics, Genetic Disease, History Of Science

New Book Looks at Postwar History of Genetic Disease

Many think of eugenics as a scientific and social movement of the past, which quickly fell out of favor after World War II. In recent decades, however, the specter of eugenics has been making something of a comeback as tests for genetic disorders have become more readily available to expecting parents.

Medicine

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thrombophilias, Blood Clot, VTE, Blood Test, Appropriateness, Medicare, Coagulation, Genetic Testing

A Lot of Blood, for No Reason? U-M Team Concludes That Common, Costly Clot Test Has Few Benefits

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A half billion dollars – at least -- gets spent each year on blood tests to see which hospital patients have a genetic quirk that makes their blood more likely to form dangerous clots. And most of that spending probably isn’t necessary, a new review shows.

Medicine

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Dr. Springer , Florida news release, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine, Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus, Medical Research

Single Mutation in Recessive Gene Increases Risk of Earlier Onset Parkinson’s Disease

A collaboration of 32 researchers in seven countries, led by scientists at Mayo Clinic’s campus in Florida, has found a genetic mutation they say confers a risk for development of Parkinson’s disease earlier than usual.

Medicine

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Cancer, Chemo Therapy, Chemo

New Drug Combination Has Potential to Significantly Improve Chemotherapy Success

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University of Georgia researchers have found a way to enhance chemotherapy’s cancer-killing powers, bringing science one step closer to a more complete cancer treatment.

Science

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Yeast, Genetic Research, Stress, Herbicide, Genetic Variation, Biology, Roundup, biochemical pathways, glyphosate, National Science Foundation

Yeast Holds the Key to Humans’ Genetic Response to Stress, Herbicide Exposure

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Yeast’s ability to grow, divide, age and metabolize food is similar to human cells and provides researchers with a nearly perfect specimen to study cell processes and genetic variation. Biologist Jennifer Gallagher is taking advantage of the organism’s functions to examine how an individual would respond to stress at a molecular level, and the effects herbicides such as the common household weedkiller RoundUp, have on genes.

Medicine

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Weight Loss, Calories, bio medical , Obesity, Genetics, Muscle, Protein, The Obesity Society, obesityweek

Can We Harness Our Genes to Burn More Calories?

Novel biomedical research uncovers tie between genetic variant and energy expenditure – a potential biological pathway to increase calorie burn and weight loss

Medicine

Channels:

Immune Cells, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, Scientists, Research, Molecular Switch, Genetics, DNA, encoding, Organisms, Immunity

LJI Scientists Flip Molecular Switches to Distinguish Closely Related Immune Cell Populations

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The cornerstone of genetics is the loss-of-function experiment. In short, this means that to figure out what exactly gene X is doing in a tissue of interest—be it developing brain cells or a pancreatic tumor—you somehow cut out, switch off or otherwise destroy gene X in that tissue and then watch what happens. That genetic litmus test has been applied since before people even knew the chemical DNA is what makes up genes. What has changed radically are the tools used by biologists to inactivate a gene.

Medicine

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Whitehead Institute, Rudolf Jaenisch, Rett Syndrome

Insight on Rett Syndrome Neurophysiology Finds Mechanisms Underlying its Functional Deficits—and Shows They Are Reversible

Researchers using a mouse model of Rett Syndrome find that cortical pyramidal neurons have faults in excitatory and inhibitory signaling; and demonstrate why recombinant human Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 has had therapeutic effects for RTT patients in clinical trials.







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