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Whitehead Institute, Rudolf Jaenisch, zika virus, Cerebral Cortex

Scientists Engineer Gene Pathway to Grow Brain Organoids with Surface Folding

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Whitehead Institute researchers provide insight into a specific gene pathway that appears to regulate the growth, structure, and organization of the human cortex. They also demonstrate that 3D human cerebral organoids can be effective in modeling the molecular, cellular, and anatomical processes of human brain development.

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Genome Study Reveals Widespread “Gray Zone” of Animals Transitioning From One Species to Two

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New research publishing December 27 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology characterizes the ability of populations to interbreed and exchange genes as a function of the level divergence of their genomes.

Science

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Neural Circuits, Neuron, Biology, Nervous System, Roundworm, C Elegans, transgenic actuators, gene expression

Biology’s “Breadboard”

Understanding how the nervous system of the roundworm C elegans works will give insights into how our vastly more complex brains function and is the subject of a paper in Nature Methods.

Medicine

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Hemophilia, Hemophilia B, Factor IX, oral delivery system, Capsule, X-linked, clotting factor IX

Capsule for Severe Bleeding Disorder Moves Closer to Reality

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Researchers are working to develop a pill to treat this serious inherited bleeding disorder. Oral delivery of the treatment--clotting factor IX--would allow individuals with type B hemophilia to swallow a pill rather than be subjected to several weekly injections of factor IX to control potentially fatal bleeding episodes.

Medicine

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Linking Human Genome Sequences to Health Data Will Change Clinical Medicine, Says Penn Expert

The value of intersecting the sequencing of individuals’ exomes (all expressed genes) or full genomes to find rare genetic variants -- on a large scale -- with their detailed electronic health record (EHR) information has “myriad benefits, including the illumination of basic human biology, the early identification of preventable and treatable illnesses, and the identification and validation of new therapeutic targets,” wrote Daniel J. Rader, MD, chair of the Department of Genetics, in the Perelman School of Medicine at Penn.

Medicine

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Cancer Biology, mRNA, Leukemia, obesity-gene, FTO gene, Cancer

Obesity-Associated Protein Could Be Linked to Leukemia Development

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Cancer researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have found an obesity-associated protein’s role in leukemia development and drug response which could lead to more effective therapies for the illness.

Medicine

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Cancer, Precision Medicine

New Precision Medicine Tool Helps Optimize Cancer Treatment

Columbia University researchers have created a user-friendly computational tool that rapidly predicts which genes are implicated in an individual’s cancer and recommends treatments.

Medicine

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Ut Southwestern, Heart and liver transplant, Hemochromatosis

UT Southwestern’s First Heart-Liver Transplant Saves Life of Singer Diagnosed with Rare Genetic Metabolic Disease

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Transplant surgeons recently performed UT Southwestern Medical Center’s first heart/liver transplant – saving the life of a singer/musician from a small Texas town.

Medicine

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Medicine And Health, Biology, Genetics

Study Shows Discrimination Interacts with Genetics and Impacts Health

It’s no secret that discrimination is stressful for those who experience it, but turns out the issue is more than skin deep—these stressors can interact with our genetics to negatively impact our health, a new University of Florida study shows.

Science

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Evolution, Earth Science, Earth Science (Hydrology/Water Resources, Oceanography), earth and planetary sciences, exoplanetary atmospheres, exoplanetary oceans, Cyanobacteria, Photosynthesis, Animal, Shale, Phosphorus, fe, iron, Nutrient, Proterozoic Eon, Chris Reinhard, Noah Planavsky, Georgia Insitute of Technology, Yale University

A Fertilizer Dearth Foiled Animal Evolution for Eons?

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Earth was inhospitable to complex life for billions of years, suffocating evolution in a nearly oxygen-free environment. Then came a shift in phosphorus concentrations to ocean shallows, and shortly after it, complex life exploded.

Medicine

Science

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Circadian Clock, Circadian Clocks, Jennifer Hurley, NIH, NIH Award, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, , omics, Multiscale Modeling, Metabolism, Inflammation, Inflammation and disease

Tracking the Circadian Clock

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Biology dictates that DNA creates proteins which create – among other things – metabolites, the outputs of metabolism. In organisms from fungi to humans, the relationship between these players is heavily influenced by our internal circadian clock, and responds to environmental influences (such as a prolonged day) with implications from industry to human health.

Medicine

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Ravit Boger, Cytomegalovirus, CMV, NOD1, protein , Infection, risk

Genetic Mutations Could Increase Risk of Cytomegalovirus Infection

Experimenting with human cells and mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have found that a genetic mutation that alters a protein called NOD1 may increase susceptibility to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. CMV is a common pathogen that infects almost 60 percent of adults in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and can lead to devastating developmental defects in fetuses and severe disease in people with weakened immune systems.

Science

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Tissue Regeneration, Muscles, Nanomaterials, Material Science, Stem Cell, Tissue Repair, Biomaterials

UW Researcher Pursues Synthetic 'Scaffolds' for Muscle Regeneration

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Miqin Zhang, a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Washington, is looking for ways to help the body heal itself when injury, disease or surgery cause large-scale damage to one type of tissue in particular: skeletal muscle.

Medicine

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Autoimmune, Autoimmune Disease, Lupus, Psoriasis, Dermatology, skin, Hashimoto's, Sjogren's Syndrome, Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hormone, Gene, Pathway

‘Master Regulator’ in Genes May Make Women More Susceptible to Autoimmune Diseases

New research identifies an inflammatory pathway in women that could help explain why they develop autoimmune diseases at a much higher rate than men.

Medicine

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DNA, Tularemia, Disease, Genome, Sequence

DNA Markers Distinguish Between Harmless, Deadly Bacteria

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Through a new study of the coccobacillus Francisella, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers are working to use DNA markers to discern related but relatively harmless species as they are identified and to provide a means to distinguish them from the harmful F. tularensis.

Medicine

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Whitehead Institute, MIT, Broad Institute, HIV, CRISP/Cas9, Biology

CRISPR Screening Identifies Potential HIV Treatment Targets

Targeting human genes required for HIV infection but not T cell survival may avoid inducing treatment resistance

Medicine

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Biobank, Gene Sequencing, Hepatology, Human Genome, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Ulcerative Colitis

Mayo Clinic Researchers Announce Discoveries From Largest Genome-Wide Study of Chronic Liver Disease

A study of unprecedented scale has led researchers to identify four previously unknown genetic risk locations for primary sclerosing cholangitis, a liver disease that lacks effective medical therapy. A Dec. 19 article in Nature Genetics highlights the undertaking, which is the largest genome-wide association study of primary sclerosing cholangitis to date and a step toward providing breakthrough treatments for the unmet needs of primary sclerosing cholangitis patients.

Medicine

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Cancer, cancer mutation, Bioinfomatics, Biomedical Engineering, computational medicine

New Bioinformatics Tool Tests Methods for Finding Mutant Genes That ‘Drive’ Cancer

Computational scientists and cancer experts have devised bioinformatics software to evaluate how well current strategies distinguish cancer-promoting mutations from benign mutations in cancer cells.

Medicine

Science

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Genome, lipidome, glycome, Glycobiology, Genomics, Glycomics, omics

There’s an “Ome” for That

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The genome was just the beginning. Rapid advances in technology and computational tools are allowing researchers to categorize many aspects of the biological world.

Science

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Drosophila, hostone modifications, Gene Expression

New Finding Reveals Battle Behind Gene Expression

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The complex process regulating gene expression is often compared to following a recipe. Miss a genetic ingredient, or add it in the wrong order, and you could have a disaster on your hands.







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