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Wave Prediction, Climate Modeling, Hurricanes

Researchers Catch Extreme Waves with Higher-Resolution Modeling

A new Berkeley Lab study shows that high-resolution models captured hurricanes and big waves that low-resolution ones missed. Better extreme wave forecasts are important for coastal cities, the military, the shipping industry, and surfers.

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Biophysics, Physiology, Aggression, stance, Posture, plantigrade, heel, Primate, Evolution

Flat-Footed Fighters

Walking on our heels, a feature that separates great apes, including humans, from other primates, confers advantages in fighting, according to a new University of Utah study published today in Biology Open. Although moving from the balls of the feet is important for quickness, standing with heels planted allows more swinging force, according to study lead author and biologist David Carrier, suggesting that aggression may have played a part in shaping our stance.

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climage change, Glaciers, Ice Melt, Canada

Canadian Glaciers Now Major Contributor to Sea Level Change, UCI Study Shows

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Ice loss from Canada’s Arctic glaciers has transformed them into a major contributor to sea level change, new research by University of California, Irvine glaciologists has found. From 2005 to 2015, surface melt off ice caps and glaciers of the Queen Elizabeth Islands grew by an astonishing 900 percent.

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Research at Sandia Looking at How Brittle Materials Fail

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Sandia National Laboratories' Brittle Materials Assurance Performance Program is working to understand how brittle materials inside devices behave and fail.

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Michigan Tech, Oroville Dam, Infrastructure, Civil Engineering

In for the Long Haul at Oroville Dam Says Water Resources Expert

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Lionfish, Reef Fishes, Coral Reefs, Invasive Species, Nova Southeastern University, Nova Southeastern Univer, Matthew Johnston, Ph.D., NSU Guy Harvey Research Institute, Guy Harvey Research Institute

Spread of Lionfish in Gulf of Mexico Is Threat to Reef Fisheries

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Continuing his research, NSU scientist Matthew Johnston, Ph.D., looks at the potential threat the invasive lionfish poses to reef fish in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean.

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disease therapeutics, cellular process, Autophagy, Protein, Beclin-1, Therapeutic, Matthew Ranaghan, Colin Garvie, Doug Daniels, Beth Levin, Jose Perez, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, University of Dayton, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

New Protein Development May Hold the Key to New Disease Therapeutics

The 2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded the for discoveries of mechanisms of autophagy, a cellular process much like recycling, where new cellular components are generated from old and damaged ones. Though a relatively simple process conceptually, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes and genes essential to the process could be a key component for treating diseases. Now, researchers have reported the first bacterial creation and functional analysis of a protein essential to initiate autophagy: a human homologous gene of Beclin-1. The researchers will present their findings during the Biophysical Society meeting, Feb. 11-15, 2017.

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Enzymes, Extreme pressure, biochemical reactions, pressure effects, Microbes, Extremophile, Qi Huang, Jocelyn M. Rogers, Russell J. Hemley, Toshiko Ichiye, Georgetown University, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

Life Under Pressure

Life can thrive in some of the most extreme environments on the planet. Microbes flourish inside hot geothermal vents, beneath the frigid ice covering Antarctica and under immense pressures at the bottom of the ocean. For these organisms to survive and function, so must the enzymes that enable them to live and grow. Now, researchers from Georgetown University have homed in on what allows particular enzymes to function under extreme pressures. The team will present its work during the Biophysical Society meeting held Feb. 11-15, 2017.

Medicine

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Alzheimer's Disease, Calcium, cell energy, Mitochondria, Protein, Cell Culture, Gene, Disease Development, Pooja Jadiya, Alyssa A. Lombardi, Jonathan P. Lambert, Timothy S. Luongo, Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò, John W. Elrod, Temple University, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

Imbalance of Calcium in a Cell's Energy Factory May Drive Alzheimer's Disease

Calcium in the mitochondria -- the energy factory of cells -- may be one of the keys to understanding and treating Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Researchers at Temple University have now identified how an imbalance of calcium ions in the mitochondria may contribute to cell death and, specifically, neurodegeneration in brain cells during Alzheimer's and dementia. The findings could eventually point to new therapies for preventing or delaying these diseases. The team will present its work during the 61st Meeting of the Biophysical Society.

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Plants, Drought, drought resistance, abscisic acid, ABA hormone, Molecular, Protein, molecule interactions, Saurabh Shukla, Moeen Meigooni, Chuankai Zhao, Diwakar Shukla, University Of Illinois, Biophysical Society 61st Meeting, Biophysical Society

How a Plant Resists Drought

Climate change will bring worsening droughts that threaten crops. One potential way to protect crops is by spraying them with a compound that induces the plants to become more drought resistant. Now, by identifying the key molecular mechanism that enables a plant to minimize water loss, researchers may be one step closer to that goal.

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Material Science, Microscopy, Chemistry, Nanoscience

Kalinin, Paranthaman Elected Materials Research Society Fellows

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Two researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sergei Kalinin and Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, have been elected fellows of the Materials Research Society.

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Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech, Oroville Dam, watershed management, forest resources

See the Dam for the Trees, Says Watershed Expert on Oroville

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Lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), Semiconductor, gas sensing, Gas Sensors, Wavelength, mid-infrared region, Ganpath Kumar Veerabathran, Stephan Sprengel, Alexander Andrejew , Markus-Christian Amann, Applied Physics Letters

Extending VCSEL Wavelength Coverage to the Mid-Infrared

There are several important gases that are detectable with mid-infrared light, having wavelengths between 3-4 micrometers. Application-grade Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), however, aren’t yet available for this wavelength range, but the increasing need for compact, portable and affordable gas sensors is spurring demand for energy-efficient semiconductor sources of mid-IR light. Addressing this demand, a group of researchers set out to develop a concept to extend the wavelength coverage of VCSELs into this important regime.

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Nanodiamond, Quantum Mechanics, quantum sensing, Nanocrystals, X-ray imaging, nanodiamond healing, Stephan O. Hruszkewycz, Wonsuk Cha, Paolo Andrich, Christopher P. Anderson, Andrew Ulvestad, Ross Harder, Paul Fuoss, David D. Awschalom, F. Joseph P. Heremans, Argonne National Laboratory, University Of Chicago, APL Materials

Turning Up the Heat for Perfect (Nano)Diamonds

For use in quantum sensing, the bulk nanodiamond crystal surrounding the point defect must be highly perfect. Any deviation from perfection will adversely affect the quantum behavior of the material. Highly perfect nanodiamonds are also quite expensive and difficult to make. A cheaper alternative, say researchers, is to take defect-ridden, low-quality, commercially manufactured diamonds, and then “heal” them. In APL Materials, they describe a method to heal diamond nanocrystals under high-temperature conditions.

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Biorobotics, Muscle Cells, biological systems, Biocomputing, muscle-cell diodes

Researchers Develop ‘Living Diode’ Using Cardiac Muscle Cells

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Research from the University of Notre Dame brings scientists one step closer to developing new forms of biorobotics and novel treatment approaches for several muscle-related health problems such as muscular degenerative disorders, arrhythmia and limb loss.

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Alma, AGN, Black Hole, Active Galactic Nuclei, Star Formation, Nrao

Black-Hole-Powered Jets Forge Fuel for Star Formation

Astronomers using ALMA have discovered a surprising connection between a supermassive black hole and the galaxy where it resides.

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Bioethics, Genetics, Gene Editing, Genomics, NAS, NASEM

JHU EXPERT: HUMAN GENE EDITING INITIATIVE REPORT

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DHS, S&T, R&D, NBAF, agro-defense, Bio, animal disease, Kansas, Laboratory, USDA, Foot And Mouth Disease

NBAF Program Observes Kansas Emergency Response Exercise to Inform Future Planning

The exercise was an early opportunity for the NBAF program to observe a simulated full-scale emergency response to allow its planners to envision how the facility might serve a crucial role in response and recovery.

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3D printing, 3D printer, Consumers

Just Press Print: New Study Shows How 3-D Printing at Home Saves Big Bucks

New research from Michigan Technological University shows that consumers who invest in an at-home 3-D printer can not only make their money back within six months, but may also see an almost 1,000 percent return on their investment over a five-year period.

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Entropy, Entropic, scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra low temperatures, molecular movement, Molecule Imaging

Measuring Entropy

A scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes – the entropy of the molecule is changed and, in turn, can be measured. The study is published in Nature Communications.







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