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Ames Lab Scientists' Surprising Discovery: Making Ferromagnets Stronger by Adding Non-Magnetic Element

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered that they could functionalize magnetic materials through a thoroughly unlikely method, by adding amounts of the virtually non-magnetic element scandium to a gadolinium-germanium alloy. It was so unlikely they called it a "counterintuitive experimental finding" in their published work on the research.

Cut U.S. Commercial Building Energy Use 29% with Widespread Controls

The U.S. could slash its energy use by the equivalent of what is currently used by 12 to 15 million Americans if commercial buildings fully used energy-efficiency controls nationwide.

How a Single Chemical Bond Balances Cells Between Life and Death

With SLAC's X-ray laser and synchrotron, scientists measured exactly how much energy goes into keeping a crucial chemical bond from triggering a cell's death spiral.

New Efficient, Low-Temperature Catalyst for Converting Water and CO to Hydrogen Gas and CO2

Scientists have developed a new low-temperature catalyst for producing high-purity hydrogen gas while simultaneously using up carbon monoxide (CO). The discovery could improve the performance of fuel cells that run on hydrogen fuel but can be poisoned by CO.

Study Sheds Light on How Bacterial Organelles Assemble

Scientists at Berkeley Lab and Michigan State University are providing the clearest view yet of an intact bacterial microcompartment, revealing at atomic-level resolution the structure and assembly of the organelle's protein shell. This work can help provide important information for research in bioenergy, pathogenesis, and biotechnology.

A Single Electron's Tiny Leap Sets Off 'Molecular Sunscreen' Response

In experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists were able to see the first step of a process that protects a DNA building block called thymine from sun damage: When it's hit with ultraviolet light, a single electron jumps into a slightly higher orbit around the nucleus of a single oxygen atom.

Researchers Find New Mechanism for Genome Regulation

The same mechanisms that separate mixtures of oil and water may also help the organization of an unusual part of our DNA called heterochromatin, according to a new study by Berkeley Lab researchers. They found that liquid-liquid phase separation helps heterochromatin organize large parts of the genome into specific regions of the nucleus. The work addresses a long-standing question about how DNA functions are organized in space and time, including how genes are silenced or expressed.

The Rise of Giant Viruses

Research reveals that giant viruses acquire genes piecemeal from others, with implications for bioenergy production and environmental cleanup.

Grasses: The Secrets Behind Their Success

Researchers find a grass gene affecting how plants manage water and carbon dioxide that could be useful to growing biofuel crops on marginal land.

SLAC Experiment is First to Decipher Atomic Structure of an Intact Virus with an X-ray Laser

An international team of scientists has for the first time used an X-ray free-electron laser to unravel the structure of an intact virus particle on the atomic level. The method dramatically reduces the amount of virus material required, while also allowing the investigations to be carried out several times faster than before. This opens up entirely new research opportunities.


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Chicago Quantum Exchange to Create Technologically Transformative Ecosystem

The University of Chicago is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to launch an intellectual hub for advancing academic, industrial and governmental efforts in the science and engineering of quantum information.

Department of Energy Awards Six Research Contracts Totaling $258 Million to Accelerate U.S. Supercomputing Technology

Today U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced that six leading U.S. technology companies will receive funding from the Department of Energy's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) as part of its new PathForward program, accelerating the research necessary to deploy the nation's first exascale supercomputers.

Cynthia Jenks Named Director of Argonne's Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

Argonne has named Cynthia Jenks the next director of the laboratory's Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division. Jenks currently serves as the assistant director for scientific planning and the director of the Chemical and Biological Sciences Division at Ames Laboratory.

Argonne-Developed Technology for Producing Graphene Wins TechConnect National Innovation Award

A method that significantly cuts the time and cost needed to grow graphene has won a 2017 TechConnect National Innovation Award. This is the second year in a row that a team at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials has received this award.

Honeywell UOP and Argonne Seek Research Collaborations in Catalysis Under Technologist in Residence Program

Researchers at Argonne are collaborating with Honeywell UOP scientists to explore innovative energy and chemicals production.

Follow the Fantastic Voyage of the ICARUS Neutrino Detector

The ICARUS neutrino detector, born at Gran Sasso National Lab in Italy and refurbished at CERN, will make its way across the sea to Fermilab this summer. Follow along using an interactive map online.

JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab

Jefferson Sciences Associates announced today the award of eight JSA/Jefferson Lab graduate fellowships. The doctoral students will use the fellowships to support their advanced studies at their universities and conduct research at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) - a U.S. Department of Energy nuclear physics laboratory managed and operated by JSA, a joint venture between SURA and PAE Applied Technologies.

Muon Magnet's Moment Has Arrived

On May 31, the 50-foot-wide superconducting electromagnet at the center of the Muon g-2 experiment saw its first beam of muon particles from Fermilab's accelerators, kicking off a three-year effort to measure just what happens to those particles when placed in a stunningly precise magnetic field. The answer could rewrite scientists' picture of the universe and how it works.

Seven Small Businesses to Collaborate with Argonne to Solve Technical Challenges

Seven small businesses have been selected to collaborate with researchers at Argonne to address technical challenges as part of DOE's Small Business Vouchers Program.

JSA Names Charles Perdrisat and Charles Sinclair as Co-Recipients of its 2017 Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Prize

Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, announced today that Charles Perdrisat and Charles Sinclair are the recipients of the 2017 Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Prize. The 2017 JSA Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Award is jointly awarded to Charles Perdrisat for his pioneering implementation of the polarization transfer technique to determine proton elastic form factors, and to Charles Sinclair for his crucial development of polarized electron beam technology, which made such measurements, and many others, possible.


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Oxygen: The Jekyll and Hyde of Biofuels

Scientists are devising ways to protect plants, biofuels and, ultimately, the atmosphere itself from damage caused by an element that sustains life on earth.

The Rise of Giant Viruses

Research reveals that giant viruses acquire genes piecemeal from others, with implications for bioenergy production and environmental cleanup.

Grasses: The Secrets Behind Their Success

Researchers find a grass gene affecting how plants manage water and carbon dioxide that could be useful to growing biofuel crops on marginal land.

New Perspectives Into Arctic Cloud Phases

Teamwork provides insight into complicated cloud processes that are important to potential environmental changes in the Arctic.

Mountaintop Plants and Soils to Become Out of Sync

Plants and soil microbes may be altered by climate warming at different rates and in different ways, meaning vital nutrient patterns could be misaligned.

If a Tree Falls in the Amazon

For the first time, scientists pinpointed how often storms topple trees, helping to predict how changes in Amazonia affect the world.

Turning Waste into Fuels, Microbial Style

A newly discovered metabolic process linking different bacteria in a community could enhance bioenergy production.

Department of Energy Awards Six Research Contracts Totaling $258 Million to Accelerate U.S. Supercomputing Technology

Today U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced that six leading U.S. technology companies will receive funding from the Department of Energy's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) as part of its new PathForward program, accelerating the research necessary to deploy the nation's first exascale supercomputers.

Electrifying Magnetism

Researchers create materials with controllable electrical and magnetic properties, even at room temperature.

One Step Closer to Practical Fast Charging Batteries

Novel electrode materials have designed pathways for electrons and ions during the charge/discharge cycle.


Smallest Transistor Ever

Article ID: 673277

Released: 2017-04-19 15:20:54

Source Newsroom: Department of Energy, Office of Science

  • Credit: Image reprinted with permission from Science

    Schematic of the smallest field effect transistor ever made shows the components of the transistor. The current flowing through the atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) material, placed between the source (S) and drain (D) terminals, is controlled by the voltage applied to the 1-nanometer-thick single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), imbedded in zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) dielectric material. The atomic structure of the layers in the transmission electron microscope image on the right shows the nanotube embedded in the ZrO2 layer and resting on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The width of the nanotube is less than 1/1000th of the diameter of a red blood cell.

The Science

It has long been thought that building nanometer-sized transistors was impossible. Simply put, the physics and atomic structural imperfections couldn’t be overcome. However, scientists built fully functional, nanometer-sized transistors. They did so using atomically flat, two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide semiconductor and a single-walled carbon nanotube imbedded in zirconium dioxide.    

The Impact

Moore’s law states that the number of transistors per square inch on a microchip has doubled every year since they were invented. This has been realized by the ability to decrease the size of a transistor. However, when the gate length of the transistors approaches 5 nanometers, it was believed that our ability to continue to shrink a transistor size would reach its limit. Below this feature size, it was not clear how to build next-generation devices. The result of this research shows that it is feasible to continue to reduce the size of a transistor, all the way down to 1 nanometer.

Summary

The next generation of microelectronics will only be realized by finding ways to continue to reduce the size of a transistor. Since the introduction of integrated circuits, the observation referred to as Moore’s law has been met — about every year, the number of transistors per unit area has doubled continuously, which is a direct consequence of our ability to continue to decrease the size of a transistor. The gate length of a transistor is the defining parameter of the transistor size, and is presently about 20 nanometers in commercial electronic chips. It is not possible to shrink it below 5 nanometers using silicon. However, researchers have demonstrated that using the semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and single-walled carbon nanotubes, the transistor gate length can be reduced to a record size of 1 nanometer. The team used these materials to fabricate a fully operational transistor. These novel materials are atomically uniform at a thickness down to a monolayer. In comparison to current materials, these newly discovered materials have lower dielectric constants, larger band gaps, and a larger carrier effective mass making them ideally matched to the device requirements. The characteristics of the nanometer-sized transistor have been measured and show a subthreshold swing ~65 mV/decade and On/Off current ratio ~106. This work demonstrated the shortest transistor ever and that Moore’s law can continue a while longer by proper engineering of the semiconductor material and device architecture.

 

Funding

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science (overall analysis of experimental/theoretical data, MoS2 materials processing/fabrication, and electron transport measurements) including support by the Molecular Foundry, an Office of Science national user facility; Applied Materials Inc. and Entegris, Inc. (A.B.S.); Office of Naval Research (J.P.L. and J.B.); Berkeley Fellowship for Graduate Studies and the National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship Program (J.P.L.); Nanoelectronics Research Initiative South West Academy of Nanoelectronics Center and Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (Q.W. and M.J.K.); SONIC (Systems on Nanoscale Information Fabrics) Research Center, one of six centers supported by the STARnet phase of the Focus Center Research Program, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by the Microelectronics Advanced Research Corporation (MARCO) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (G.P. and H.-S.P.W.); National Science Foundation Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science (E3S) (A.J., H.S.P.W., and J.B.); and Samsung (A.J.). Resources at the Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science national scientific user facility, were used.

Publication

S.B. Desai, S.R. Madhvapathy, A.B. Sachid, J.P. Llinas, Q. Wang, G.H. Ahn, G. Pitner, M.J. Kim, J. Bokor, C. Hu, H.S.P. Wong, and A. Javey, “MoS2 transistors with 1-nanometer gate lengthsExternal link.” Science 354(6308), 99-102 (2016). [DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4698]