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  • Multi-scale hierarchy with dipole oscillations from neuron (left) downward in size and upward in frequency through microtubule, rows of tubulin, tubulin and London force dipole networks which oscillate in the terahertz regime. Anesthetics may act (lower right) by altering these collective dipole oscillations.
    Multi-scale hierarchy with dipole oscillations from neuron (left) downward in size and upward in frequency through microtubule, rows of tubulin, tubulin and London force dipole networks which oscillate in the terahertz regime. Anesthetics may act (lower right) by altering these collective dipole oscillations.
  • Change in tubulin collective dipole modes due to the addition of anesthetic and non-anesthetic molecules, with maximum agent-induced change in tubulin normal-mode oscillation frequency at (613 ± 8) THz plotted versus each molecule’s minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Blue:Anesthetic, Green;Anesthetic/convulsant, Pink:Non-anesthetic, - Meth:Methoxyflurane, Halo:Halothane, Iso:Isoflurane, En:Enflurane, DEth: Diethyl ether, Sevo:Sevoflurane, Flur:Flurothyl, Des:Desflurane, Nitr:Nitrous oxide, F6:dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane, TFMB: trifluoromethylbenzene). For anesthetic and non-anesthetic molecules, alterations in oscillation frequency correlate closely with their anesthetic potency (1/MAC). Non-anesthetics (shown with MAC of 1000%, 10 atmospheres) are predicted with their correct lack of potency, unlike with the Meyer-Overton correlation. Reproduced from Craddock et al., Sci. Rep., 2017.​
    Change in tubulin collective dipole modes due to the addition of anesthetic and non-anesthetic molecules, with maximum agent-induced change in tubulin normal-mode oscillation frequency at (613 ± 8) THz plotted versus each molecule’s minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Blue:Anesthetic, Green;Anesthetic/convulsant, Pink:Non-anesthetic, - Meth:Methoxyflurane, Halo:Halothane, Iso:Isoflurane, En:Enflurane, DEth: Diethyl ether, Sevo:Sevoflurane, Flur:Flurothyl, Des:Desflurane, Nitr:Nitrous oxide, F6:dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane, TFMB: trifluoromethylbenzene). For anesthetic and non-anesthetic molecules, alterations in oscillation frequency correlate closely with their anesthetic potency (1/MAC). Non-anesthetics (shown with MAC of 1000%, 10 atmospheres) are predicted with their correct lack of potency, unlike with the Meyer-Overton correlation. Reproduced from Craddock et al., Sci. Rep., 2017.​




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