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Medicine

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Fossil, Gabriel Bever

Evolutionary Biologists Say Recently Discovered Fossil Shows Transition of a Reptile From Life on Land to Life in the Sea

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Using modern research tools on a 155-million-year-old reptile fossil, scientists at Johns Hopkins and the American Museum of Natural History report they have filled in some important clues to the evolution of animals that once roamed land and transitioned to life in the water.

Science

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Plesiosaurs, Dinosaurs, Jurassic Period, flipper, Swimming, Propulsion, robotic vehicle, Hydrodynamics, Bioinspired, bioinspired design, Gabriel Weymouth, Kate Devereux, Nick Copsey, Luke Muscutt, Jon Downes, Bharath Ganapathisubramani, University of Southampton, Division of Fluid Dynamics, DFD, American Physical Society, APS

Plesiosaur Flippers Inspire a Steering Mechanism for Swimming Robotic Vehicle

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Plesiosaurs, who thrived during the early to middle Jurassic Period, used four paddlelike flippers of nearly equal size and musculature to swim. Despite the seemingly subpar engineering, the fossil record reveals that plesiosaurs were widespread and prolific. This inspired a team in the U.K. to explore how swimming with four flippers might be advantageous compared to two. They’ll present their work during the 70th meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 19-21, 2017.

Science

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Jellyfish, stinging cells, nematocyte, nematocysts, jellyfish sting, Tubule, Fluid Dynamics, Division of Fluid Dynamics, DFD, American Physical Society, APS

Stinging Cells Pack a Powerful Pressure

The stinging cells of jellyfish, called nematocytes, have evolved to be one of the world’s most efficient predation tools. The nematocysts consist of a capsule and folded tubule, and use high pressure and acceleration for defense and locomotion and, more importantly, to capture prey. Inconsistencies in a previous conceptual explanation of the stinging cell mechanism were identified using a microfluidic system and mathematical models. Researchers will share their mathematical model of nemotocytes at the 70th meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 19-21, 2017. The model demonstrates how environmental modifications can reduce the impact of jellyfish stinging capacity.

Science

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Fossils, Forests, fossil trees, Trees, Paleoecology, plant fossils, Erik Gulbranson, Geology, Mass Extinction, South Pole

UWM Geologists Uncover Antarctica’s Fossil Forests

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Prehistoric polar forests were built for survival, but were not hardy enough to live in ultra-high concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A UWM geologist is studying the tree fossil record in Antarctica from a mass extinction 250 million years ago, looking for clues to how greenhouse gases affected plants -- then and now.

Medicine

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Life

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Law and Public Policy

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Rural Health, Healthcare, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National 4-H Council, Appalachia, Health Disparities, Racial Disparities, Prevention, Health Policy

Closing the Rural Health Gap: Media Update from RWJF and Partners on Rural Health Disparities

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Rural counties continue to rank lowest among counties across the U.S., in terms of health outcomes. A group of national organizations including the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the National 4-H Council are leading the way to close the rural health gap.

Science

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man's ancestors , earliest fossils of mammals from line that led to humans, eutherian mammals

Man's Earliest Ancestors Discovered In Southern England

The two teeth are from small, rat-like creatures that lived 145 million years ago in the shadow of the dinosaurs. They are the earliest undisputed fossils of mammals belonging to the line that led to human beings.

Medicine

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Cancer, Iridium, Dinosaur, dinosaur extinction, Cells, Cancer Cell, Singlet Oxygen, Chemistry

Cancer Cells Destroyed with Dinosaur Extinction Metal

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Cancer cells can be targeted and destroyed with the metal from the asteroid that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, according to new research by an international collaboration between the University of Warwick and Sun Yat-Sen University in China.

Science

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Extinction, Triassic, Fossils, Petrified Forest

Research Provides Unique Insight Into Extinction Dynamics in Late Triassic

A team of scientists and students at the University of Rhode Island is inching closer to revealing how a group of animals from the Late Triassic went extinct

Science

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Dinosaurs, Cretaceous Period, Carboniferous Period, Elephants, Mammoths, Northern Arizona University, NAU, Chris Doughty, global fertility, vegitation

New Research Shows Dinosaur Dung Fertilizes Planet

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According to NAU researcher Chris Doughty, these large animals are important not for the quantity of dung they produce, but for their ability to move long distances across landscapes, effectively mixing the nutrients.

Science

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Birds, Evolution, Mass Extinction, Lab of Ornithology

Dino-Killing Asteroid's Impact on Bird Evolution

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Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants. That's one conclusion drawn by the authors of a new study published in Systematic Biology.







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