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Medicine

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St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, AMKL, pediatric leukemia, next-generation sequencing, Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia, genetic alteration, therapy guidelines

EMBARGOED

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 23-Jan-2017 11:00 AM EST

Medicine

Science

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Virus, Bacteria communication, Phages, Sorek

Viruses Overheard Talking to One Another

For the first time, viruses have been found to communicate with one another, leaving short “posts” for kin and descendants. The messages help the viruses reading them decide how to proceed with the process of infection, according to Weizmann Institute research.

Medicine

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Cancer, Tumor, Cell Biology, Lung Cancer

Molecular Subgroups of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Predict Tumor Behavior, Reveal Treatment Targets

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EGFR mutations is associated with a longer median overall survival (almost double) compared with those without EGFR mutations when treated with specific targeted agents.

Science

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Genomics, Metagenomics, DNA, Database, Protein, Protein structures, Protein Function, Computational, HPC, Computing, Biology, Science, DOE Office of Science

Seeking Structure with Metagenome Sequences

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In the January 20, 2017 issue of Science, University of Washington-led team, in collaboration with researchers at the DOE Joint Genome Institute, reports that structural models have been generated for 12 percent of the protein families that had previously had no structural information available.

Science

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Bioethics, Organoids, Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Animal Testing, Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine

Scientists Initiate First Ethical Guidelines for Organs Cultivated in Vitro

In the latest edition of the journal “Science”, Jürgen Knoblich, a leading authority on stem cells and deputy director of the IMBA (Institute for Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences), together with international experts, presents a first ethical guideline for research into human organ models. In the article, he also argues for critical and responsible engagement with the new technology.

Science

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B Cells, Lymphoma, germinal center

EMBARGOED

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 23-Jan-2017 11:00 AM EST

Medicine

Science

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Biology, Cancer, Protein, Lipid, Fat, Stem Cells, Molecular Biology, Chemistry, waxes, triacylglycerols, Aging, Senescent

As Cells Age, the Fat Content Within Them Shifts

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As cells age and stop dividing, their fat content changes, along with the way they produce and break down fat and other molecules classified as lipids. By providing broad insights into the connection between lipids and cellular aging, the findings open the door for additional research that could one day support the development of lipid-based approaches to preventing cell death or hastening it in cancerous tumors.

Medicine

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Nyu Langone, Agnel Sfeir, Mitochondria, Genetics, common deletion, strand displacement, Pearson syndrome, Kearns-Sayre, ophthalmopl

Roots of Related Genetic Diseases Found in Cell Powerhouses

Scientists at NYU Langone Medical Center have discovered the mechanisms behind a genetic change known to cause a set of related diseases.

Science

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Joint Genome Institute, Fungi, Bacteria, fungal-bacterial mutualisms, Department of Energy Office of Science, Bioenergy

Of Mutualism and Lipid Metabolism in Fungi

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Novel mechanism in bacterial-fungal symbiosis could have biodiesel production applications

Medicine

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Research, Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Colon Cancer

‘Collateral’ Lethality May Offer New Therapeutic Approach for Cancers of the Pancreas, Stomach and Colon

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Cancer cells often delete genes that normally suppress tumor formation. These deletions also may extend to neighboring genes, an event known as “collateral lethality,” which may create new options for development of therapies for several cancers.

Science

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Cell Division Regulation

Study Finds New Target for Controlling Cell Division

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Modern genome sequencing methods used to measure the efficiency of synthesis of individual protein during cell division has found that the enzymes that make lipids and membranes were synthesized at much greater efficiency when a cell is ready to split.

Science

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super-resolution microscopy, stem cell differentiation

Super-Resolution Imaging Offers Fast Way to Discern Fate of Stem Cells

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Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health have developed a new way to identify the state and fate of individual stem cells earlier than previously possible.

Medicine

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Neuropathy, Pathology, pain, Drug Development, Peripheral Nerve Disorders, Cell Biology, Neuroscience

Blocking Neuron Signaling Pathway Could Lead to New Treatments for Peripheral Neuropathy

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Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the University of Manitoba and St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre in Canada, have identified a molecular signaling pathway that, when blocked, promotes sensory neuron growth and prevents or reverses peripheral neuropathy in cell and rodent models of type 1 and 2 diabetes, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and HIV.

Science

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Cholesterol, Membranes, Signalling

Researchers Zero-in on Cholesterol's Role in Cells

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For the first time, by using a path-breaking optical imaging technique to pinpoint cholesterol's location and movement within the cell membrane, chemists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have made the surprising finding that cholesterol is a signaling molecule that transmits messages across the cell membrane.

Medicine

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Merkel cell carcinoma , immune therapy, Immunotherapy, Skin Cancer, Cancer, “killer” (CD8) T cells , Cd8 T Cells, Paul Nghiem, MCC, KLL, Natalie Miller, KLL-specific T cells

Immune Responses Against a Virus-Related Skin Cancer Suggest Ways to Improve Immunotherapy

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Researchers at Seattle’s Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington say a new study suggests ways to improve immune therapy for certain cancers including a virus-associated form of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare, aggressive skin cancer.

Medicine

Science

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Vaccine, Immune System, pathogenic particles, Biophysics, biophysical

Biophysics Plays Key Role in Immune System Signaling and Response

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How big you are may be as important as what you look like, at least to immune system cells watching for dangerous bacteria and viruses.

Medicine

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First Cell Culture of Live Adult Human Neurons Shows Potential of Brain Cell Types

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Studying brain disorders in people and developing drugs to treat them has been slowed by the inability to investigate single living cells from adult patients. In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers were able to grow adult human neurons donated from patients who had undergone surgery. From these cell cultures, they identified more than five brain cell types and the potential proteins each cell could make.

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Penn Study Identifies Potent Inhibitor of Zika Entry Into Human Cells

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Researchers identified a panel of small molecules that inhibit Zika virus infection, including one that stands out as a potent inhibitor of Zika viral entry into relevant human cell types. They screened a library of 2,000 bioactive compounds for their ability to block Zika virus infection in three distinct cell types using two strains of the virus.

Science

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Fossils, Trilobites, cruziana , palaeozoic

Fossils Found Reveal Unseen ‘Footprint’ Maker

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Fossils found in Morocco from the long-extinct group of sea creatures called trilobites, including rarely seen soft-body parts, may be previously unseen animals that left distinctive fossil ‘footprints’ around the ancient supercontinent Gondwana.

Medicine

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Cancer, Melanoma, PD-1 blockade, Skin Cancer, Drug Resistance

Ludwig Study Reveals Why Cancer Cells Spread Within the Body

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Findings uncover an ancient mechanism that makes cancer cells invasive, explains melanoma’s resistance to therapy and opens the door to development of novel cancer therapies







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