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Science

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Actin, Myosin, super-resolution microscopy, Cytoskeleton

Microscopic Muscles: How Non-Muscle Cells Find the Strength to Move

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Researchers from the Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore at the National University of Singapore have described, for the first time, the ordered arrangement of myosin-II filaments in actin cables of non-muscle cells.

Medicine

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Genomics, Fertilization process, Molecular Biology, zygote

Unique Genome Architectures After Fertilisation in Single-Cell Embryos

Using a newly developed method researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA) have been able to shed light on the complexity of genome reorganization occurring during the first hours after fertilization in the single-cell mammalian embryo. Their findings have recently been published in the journal Nature. The team of researchers (from three continents) have discovered that the egg and sperm genomes that co-exist in the single-cell embryo or zygote have a unique structure compared to other interphase cells. Understanding this specialized chromatin “ground state” has the potential to provide insights into the yet mysterious process of epigenetic reprogramming to totipotency, the ability to give rise to all cell types.

Medicine

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Breast Cancer, cancer proteomics

Rogue Breast Tumor Proteins Point to Potential Drug Therapies

For patients with difficult-to-treat cancers, doctors increasingly rely on genomic testing of tumors to identify errors in the DNA that indicate a tumor can be targeted by existing therapies. But this approach overlooks rogue proteins that may be driving cancer cells and also could be targeted with existing treatments, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Medicine

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zika virus, Vaccination, Drug Development, Virology, microcephaly , Guillain Barre Syndrome, Mosquitos, Climate Change, tropical diseases, Infectious Diseases

Zika Virus Protein Mapped to Speed Search for Cure

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A study published today reports that a team led by Indiana University scientists has mapped a key protein that causes the Zika virus to reproduce and spread.

Medicine

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Opioids, Itching, Side Effects, Neuroscience, Pharmacology

Why Do Some Opioids Cause Severe Itching?

With a more accurate understanding of the characteristics and function of the receptor MRGRPX2, University of North Carolina School of Medicine researchers were also able to create chemical probe that will allow them study the receptor more precisely.

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Why Are Primates Big-Brained? Researchers’ Answer Is Food for Thought

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Brain size in primates is predicted by diet, an analysis by a team of New York University anthropologists indicates. These results call into question “the social brain hypothesis,” which has posited that humans and other primates are big-brained due to factors pertaining to sociality.

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Bacteria, Enzymes, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Bioremediation

Enzyme Structures Illuminate Mechanism Behind Bacteria’s Bioremediation Prowess

In a publication in the journal Nature released today (March 27, 2017), scientists from the Department of Biochemistry and Department of Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have solved the structure of an enzyme caught in the act of attacking toluene — a chemical derived from wood and oil.

Medicine

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Neurobiology, Vascular Biology, Stroke, Brain, Cerebrovascular

Electrical “Switch” in Brain’s Capillary Network Monitors Activity and Controls Blood Flow

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New research has uncovered that capillaries have the capacity to both sense brain activity and generate an electrical vasodilatory signal to evoke blood flow and direct nutrients to neurons.

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Marine Protected Area, Geography, sanctuaries, Marine Reserves

FSU Professor: Inadequate Resources Diminish Benefits of Marine Protected Areas

FSU Assistant Professor of Geography Sarah Lester partnered with more than 20 institutions on a multiyear research project that found only 9 percent of marine protected areas (MPAs) report having adequate staff. MPAs — such as marine reserves, sanctuaries, parks and no-take zones — are areas designated to protect marine species and habitats from both global and local threats.

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Marine Protected Areas

Lack of Staffing, Funds Prevent Marine Protected Areas From Realizing Full Potential

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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular strategy for protecting marine biodiversity, but a new global study demonstrates that widespread lack of personnel and funds are preventing MPAs from reaching their full potential. Only 9 percent of MPAs reported having adequate staff.







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