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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 22-Dec-2014 3:00 PM EST

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First Direct Evidence that a Mysterious Phase of Matter Competes with High-Temperature Superconductivity

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Scientists have found the first direct evidence that a mysterious phase of matter known as the "pseudogap" competes with high-temperature superconductivity, robbing it of electrons that otherwise might pair up to carry current through a material with 100 percent efficiency.

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Yellowstone's Thermal Springs -- Their Colors Unveiled

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Researchers at Montana State University and Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences in Germany have created a simple mathematical model based on optical measurements that explains the stunning colors of Yellowstone National Park’s hot springs and can visually recreate how they appeared years ago, before decades of tourists contaminated the pools with make-a-wish coins and other detritus. The model, and stunning pictures of the springs, appear today in the journal Applied Optics.

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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 22-Dec-2014 11:00 AM EST

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Neuroscientists Identify Brain Mechanisms That Predict Generosity in Children

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University of Chicago developmental neuroscientists have found specific brain markers that predict generosity in children. Those neural markers appear to be linked to both social and moral evaluation processes.

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Machine Learning Reveals Unexpected Genetic Roots of Cancers, Autism and Other Disorders

University of Toronto researchers from Engineering, Biology and Medicine teach computers to ‘read the human genome’ and rate likelihood of mutations causing disease, opening vast new possibilities for medicine

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How the Physics of Champagne and Soda Bubbles May Help Address the World's Future Energy Needs

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Most power stations rely on boilers to convert water into steam, but the phase transition involved is highly complex. During the phase transition, no one is exactly sure what's occurring inside the boiler -- especially how bubbles form. So a team of researchers in Japan set out to find an answer and in the Journal of Chemical Physics, they describe how they were able to simulate bubble nucleation from the molecular level.

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'Perfect Storm' Quenching Star Formation around a Supermassive Black Hole

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Astronomers using ALMA have discovered that modest black holes can shut down star formation by producing turbulence.

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Multiple Allergic Reactions Traced to Single Protein

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Johns Hopkins and University of Alberta researchers have identified a single protein as the root of painful and dangerous allergic reactions to a range of medications and other substances. If a new drug can be found that targets the problematic protein, they say, it could help smooth treatment for patients with conditions ranging from prostate cancer to diabetes to HIV.

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Study Hints That Ancient Earth Made Its Own Water—Geologically

In a finding that meshes well with recent discoveries from the Rosetta mission, Ohio State University researchers have discovered a geochemical pathway by which Earth makes it own water through plate tectonics. This finding extends the planet's water cycle to billions of years—and suggests that enough water is buried in the deep earth right now to fill the Pacific Ocean.

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